west of england , still a beautifull place , although much changed as regards the landscape related to archaeology , the somerset levels to the filling of creeks , the depth of change is quite astounding , regardless of the alterations due to the advent of railways , then roads contribute mostly to the obliteration of history , motorways in particular , erosion and infill would astound most of us in their 

progress .. 


language and names can and do constantly change , invasion has played a big part in change

Britannia in the Ravenna Cosmography: a reassessment K J Fitzpatrick-Matthews

This does not solve the problem of why the Cosmographer should have seen Isca Dumnoniorum,Exeter , as a point at which to insert a break in his listing. The Peutinger Table may offer a clue : although Britain is severely truncated , with only East Anglia and Kent appearing on the surviving Moridunum and Isca Dumnoniorum are also shown without any intervening south-coast places.

It is possible that Isca Dumnoniorum was depicted as prominent in some way, perhaps isolated on a promontory or, as seems more likely, as the gateway to a peninsula (as suggested by Rivet & Smith 1979, 200). In this way the Cosmographer might have decided to break his text at a point which appeared dictated by the geography of the region. He does so further north, where his listing of the Antonine Wall forts occurs ‘where that same Britain is seen to be narrowest from sea to sea’ (ubi et ipsa britania plus angustissima de oceano in oceanum esse dinoscitur 10750 to 10751). Although this was not the primary reason for inserting a break at this latter point, the Cosmographer was clearly sensitive to the depicted shape of the island.
On the other hand, we should perhaps take into account the curious fact that the Civitas Dumnoniorum (basically the Cornish peninsula west of Exeter) appears to have been a part of Britain virtually unaffected by those changes to élite behaviour usually termed ‘romanisation’.

Is it possible that much of it lay outside provincial or diocesan control and that some kind of border was depicted on the Cosmographer’s map source as separating the south-western peninsula from the rest of Britain?In that case,Isca Dumnoniorummay have been prominent as a point of contact between the wilds of the far south-west and the more ‘civilised’ Durotriges (or Durotrages : the form of the name is very uncertain according to Rivet & Smith  to the east . Inside this site the noted Roman areas do not seem to fit this revision with the one dig at Calstock : the Cornish Peninsula  in qua britania plurimas fuisse ciuitates et castra legimus ex quibus aliquantas designare uolumus id est: Giano Barnstaple ? 10546 Eltabo River Taw 10546 , Elconio River Torridge ? , 10547 Nemetotatio North Tawton 10547

Tamaris Launceston ? the question mark is from an old enquiry damnonia .blue would suggest Kings' Tamerton situated in plymouth for various reason , click link for why....

10548 Puro coronauis ? 10548 Pilais ? 10549 Vernilis Liskeard ? 10549 Ardua rauenatone River Dart 10550 Deuionisso Statio ? 10551 deuentia steno Buckfastleigh Totnes ? 10551 ,

10552 Duriarno Plymouth 10552 ? the question mark is from an old enquiry damnonia .blue would suggest plympton

Vxelis Barnstaple ? 1061 Verteuia Land’s End 1061 = 1069
This group appears to take us on a general perambulation of the Cornish Peninsula and adjacent area.

*Fl Taua, the second name, is clearly the River Taw(Ekwall 1928, 394; Thomas 1966a, 87; Rivet & Smith 1979, 470). *Nemetostatio is probably the fort at North Tawton,which is in an area where a group of modern names containing the elements Nymet and Nemet are found (Rivet & Smith 1979, 425).The identification of *Fl Conio with Ptolemy’s Κενίωνος ποταμοῦ ἐκβολαί (Geography II.3,3) made by Rivet & Smith (1979, 306) must therefore be questioned as the general progression seems to be from north-east to southwest.It may refer the River Torridge, although this is a Celtic name, derived by Ekwall (1928, 414) from a Brittonic *Torric-, ‘violent, rough’.*Glano should therefore be somewhere in north Devon,perhaps in the vicinity of Barnstaple. Tamaris,the Ταμάρη of Ptolemy (II.3,13), is a site on the River Tamar (Ekwall 1928, 389), perhaps at the crossing at Launceston, not the river itself, as the name recurs in the list of river-names (10748). *Durocornouio and Pilais
Britannia in the Ravenna Cosmography: a reassessment K J Fitzpatrick-Matthews


cannot now be identified. Charles Thomas (1966a, 87) originally identified the former with The Rumps, a pre-Roman defended enclosure.

More recently, he suggested that it might be Tintagel, the site of an important sub-Roman trading settlement, although its Romano-British status is not clear (Harry & Morris 1997, 121). <Vernilis> may be the same as Ptolemy’s Οὐολίβα (Geography II.3,13), perhaps near Liskeard (Strang 1997, 30); the correct RomanoBritish form may have been *Verleua. The Cosmographer’s form would have arisen by way of a transposition of -l- and -u-, the latter being miscopied as -n-.
The next name must be for *Fl Deruentione, the River Dart, so the Cosmographer’s eye may have moved from travelling along the spine of Cornwall, following the poorly known road along the centre of the peninsula, and he has possibly now turned his attention to the road south from Exeter, closer to the south Devon coast. Deuionisso Statio and Deruentio Statio , which are wrongly divided in the text are probably unlocated Roman government establishments, perhaps tax offices.



The latter may have lain in the Dart valley , Dart being Brittonic *Deruentiu: perhaps at Buckfastleigh or Totnes, and the former perhaps near Newton Abbot or elsewhere on the River Teign.

damnonia has a few exras to observe waterways have the answer to all the doubts in this old review Iscas and taintona will give you clues

the river Lemon too

The next name, Duriarno, is probably not the same as Durnouaria (Dorchester),as suggested by Rivet & Smith (1979, 345) following Horsley (1732, 490),since it is probably not corrupt (compare the Arnodurum quoted by Williams (Richmond & Crawford 1949, 32),which shows the more usual ‘continental’ ordering of elements).

Instead,it may be the name of a site in the vicinity of Plymouth where the inhumation cemetery at Mount Battenand a sequence of coins attest a settlement of some importance (Thomas 1966a, 86).

Uxelis is too far west to be the same as Ptolemy’s Οὔξελλα (II.3, 13), which must be on the River Parrett, his Οὐεξάλλα εἴσχυσις (II.3,2), and may be a site or river in Cornwall, perhaps the Fowey or the Fal, unless it is an example of a name written to the west of its symbol on the map source. If this is the case, then it may have been near Barnstaple (Strang 1997, 30). Group 2: the south Devon and Cornish coast Melamoni Sidford ? 1062 = 1064/1069/10613
Scadumnamorum Exeter 1062
Termonin ? 1063
Mesteuia Land’s End 1063 = 1061
The mention of Moridunum, Sidford ?, for the first time indicates a change of direction, and there are now hints of an ordering of names with a general progression from east to west. The -l- for -r- in Moridunum is also found in the next section; it may be that the name was very difficult to read in the Cosmographer’s source. It is unlikely to have occurred as a result of misreading two separate documents, further evidence for the essential unity of the Cosmographer’s sources. The unlocated *Terminum would have been somewhere between Exeter and Land’s End, an admittedly imprecise location. The River Gowy in Cheshire was formerly known as the aqua de Tervin (‘water of Tarvin’) in 1209, the name deriving from the Latin terminus, ‘boundary’, via Welsh Terfyn (Dodgson 1970, 26), which has been retained by a large parish and village. Although the origin of the latter name is generally sought in the post-Roman politics of the region (Bu’Lock 1972, 24), it is probable that the River Gowy was the eastern boundary of the prata legionis of the fortress at Chester. Could a similar origin be suggested for this name, at the western boundary of the prata legionis of the early fortress at Exeter or the territorium of the later capital of the Civitas Dumnoniorum?

                  

DUMNONIA therefore as a geographical term seems to lie in the background of our national, and especially West-Country, annals, as a somewhat dim and uncertain region, regarded as a half fabulous realm, not to be defined by modern counties or by modern Bishoprics, although the name has survived in Devon. It has long since dropped out of use and finds little mention in our text-books. William of Malmesbury could say “ In Dumnonia quae Devenscire dicitur 55 and render himself intelligible to men of his own age (1143) ; and, further back still in our history, Asser, the biographer of King Alfred, could quote “ Dumnonia" , as already noted, probably meaning Devon and part of Somerset reaching up to the Parret mouth and, perhaps, further east still, towards Bristol (a .d . 875-900).


That there was a church if not a distinct Diocese in Dumnonia, we may infer from a letterwritten by Aldhelm,

Bishop of Sherborne in a.d. 704 who gave a kind of pastoral charge to Gerontius, King of Dumnoiiia, and to all priests (sacerdotes) living in Dumnonia. The view of Aldhelm, who was partially Romanized, was that Dumnonia was rather uncivilized (dira), a view we need not endorse, as he probably meant that the Celtic Church was not sufficiently imbued with Roman and papal influences.

The old Roman geographers used the name of Dumnonia mid had a definition for it,

Claudius Ptolemaeus ad 150 placing the Dumnonii next to the Durotriges or Dorsaetas,i.e. men of Dorset, on the east, and extending this region to" Volida" ie Fowey or Falmouth in Cornwall.He gave them Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter) and Caerleon.On the Coast

 Dumnonia of Somerset Dumnonia included Uxella on the Axe and Uphill1 above Brean.This certainly would include 'Anchor Head ” on the present site of Weston-super-Mare with the old fort of Worlesborough above it. It is worth noticing that a later Roman geographer Caius Julius Solinus,a .d . 238 extended the Dumnonii much further up the Severn and placed them opposite to the Silures.

Dr. Guest in his “ Origines Celticae,” conjectures that the bounds of Dumnonia stretched from Malmesbury to the Land’s End and that the kings of Dumnonia had added to this realm by conquest and that, in the days of Gereint , dumnonia must have been in power and dignity the first of the British Kingdoms. He writes : " It is not my object to trace the several stages of decay through which the power of Dumnonia passed as it melted away before the ascendancy of England. The more intimate relations of this British Kingdom were no doubt with the kindred races of Wales and Brittany, but the influences it exercised over the national progress and even over the literature of its English neighbours were by no means of slight account, though they have been strangely overlooked. They afford, I think, the only solution of some of the most intricate problems connected with our early history, and materials for such inquiry may be scanty, but they are not altogether wanting.” The three chief “ perpetual choirs ” of the Isle of Britain were :  That of Llan Iltud Vawr in Glamorgan ;  That of Ambrosius in Ambresbury, near Salisbury ; That of Glaston. In each of these choirs there were 2,400, that is there were one hundred for every hour of the day and night in rotation perpetuating the praise of God without rest or intermission. What may be termed the spiritual life of an enlarged Dumnonia was centred around these places about

a .d . 500. This implied a kind of national unity from Salisbury to the Land’s End. When, later on, the Bishopric of Sherborne was formed and Aldhelm ruled over “ Selwood1. See “ George of Ravenna,” p. 424. Urbs ab Uxellae ostio longe separata. Fluvius est Axe— Uxella forte est Axbridge : also “ History of the Ancient Britons,” by J. A. Giles,



Dumnonia and Glaston this inland continuity from Wiltshire westward was slightly impaired about a.d .700. But Dumnonia unity was preserved along the north coasts and littoral of the Severn Sea, being in its very nature maritime and its inhabitants seafaring. Glaston and Llan Iltud Vawr preserved their Celtic traditions. It was a matter of navigation and of a sea-and river-intercourse, easier in its way than travel through inland forests and less perilous.That road or highway, possibly of Roman origin, linking Dumnonia and its northern parts together, leading from Bristol and Bath westward to Uxella or Axbridge, Brent and so to Cynwith or Comwith passage on the Parret was first constructed with a strategic and maritime purpose. It was the trunk road of ancient Dumnonia for all purposes. It

helped the pilgrim also on his way to Glaston and was connected with all land routes and especially with the sea routes across Severn. Glaston also had its river anchorages, its

canals and moorland boats (batelli) and river craft. The tidal wave swept humble currough or larger barge and vessel up to itssacred portals.

If we adopt Sir Charles Elton’s definitions of ancient Siluria and infer that it meant a block of Wales including Glamorgan and Hereford, as well as Monmouth, it will be seen that the Dumnonii must have been found some distance up the Severn. Hath and Bristol (Bristowa, the town of the British) ; both with churches dedicated to St. Michael, would have been occupied by them. Gildas, our oldest historian, whoknew the Severn well, mentions a certain “ King of Dumnonia ” Constantine by name (Dumnoniae tyrannus), as apart from Vortipore, King of Demetia which we assume to mean geographically, South Wales and not simply Pembroke. The name of Constantine, it may be noted, introduces early Christian association (300-400). To-day there is a Cornish parish near Falmouth called Constantine where it is said although the rumour cannot be substantiated, silver coins of Arthur were found near the church. Constantine, also,

1 Elton’s “ Origins of English History,” p. 141.

2 Lewis’ “ Topographical Dictionary,” vol. i, p. 509.

                                                                                                                                            Ancient Dumnonia.
 what time the existing boundaries between West Somerset and North Devon were universally acknowledged is not clear and this uncertainty, dating far back in County annals, has continued even up to modern times. Florence of Worcester  ad 1118   in his Chronicle, when recording the Danish Foray up the Severn Sea in a d  997, described it as made upon " Watchet in Devonshire.

” Watchet or Wacet , the small Saxon port on the north coast of Somerset , lies many miles within the County borders and in Domesday (1086) was certainly located within the County as a place of ancient importance. Moreover, in the Somerset Exchequer Lay Subsidies  Watchet figured as a Somerset Burgus or Burgh. There was the same popular uncertainty about Exmoor and Exmoor Forest, that well-known Royal preserve,

which , according to all records we have of Forest Courts and Forest proceedings from the earliest times, was always reckoned a Somerset Forest.
This undoubted fact seems to have been lout sight of, or forgotten,
when, in the days of Charles I Kmlymion Porter, a Court favourite asked for Simonsbath a porquisite for himself describing it in his application as lying “ within Devon "

Even Sir Henry Spelman in his  'dialogue of Royal Forests, circa  ,1670 places Exmoor in Devon.

 

“ Forestae.”
     Dumnonia In this particular case of Exmoor Forest where the Devon Parishes of Countisbury and Brendon and , it may be added, Lynton, and Parracombe,

are so close to the north-west corner of the Forest , and Devon landowners and farmers have for so long exercised Common rights on the Forest and along its “ purlieus,” some confusion may be natural. It was a question about which many appeared to be ill-informed or careless  . The antiquary Leland  knew the boundaries when he wrote in his Itinery ad  1538  :
“ The bounds of Somersetshire " go beyond the i e the Barle , one way by north west a 2 miles or more to a plain called the Spanne and the Tourres ; for there be hillocks of yerth cast up of auncient tyme for markes and Limites  between Somersetshire and Devonshire  and hereabout is the Limes and Bounds of Exmoor Forest.

” This would be in the neighbourhood of what is now called “ The Duck-Pool Allotment ”  and “ Moles Chamber,” and “ Shoulsbury Castle,” the latter being in Devonshire.
But leaving one antiquary for another what can be said of the learned Sir William Dugdale who, in his Epitome of the “ Monasticon,” locates the alien Priory of Stoke Courcy in Devonshire whereas it lay close to the mouth of the River Parret ,  Or what indeed, to the Reverend Richard Warner of Bath, a west country topographer and pedestrian in his day, who when crossing the Parret at Comwich during one of his “ Walks ” to the West 1800 , noticed what he termed the “ hills of Devon ” as seen from Comwich Passage, meaning - surely the Quantock Hills or, perhaps the “ triple-crowned ” Dunkery, all in Somerset. To this day, indeed, many visitors to the West think or speak of Exmoor as lying in Devonshire. The very expression of “ The Devon and Somerset stag hounds ” fosters the illusion although, as a matter of fact, neither the runs or meets of the pack take place as a rule, within Devon, but almost always within the accepted borders of Somerset ; There is, we believe, some grounds for these historical uncertainties about the geography of North Devon .


Ancient Dumnonia 
     Humor , not, both counties appearing to have fallen largely within the bounds of one geographical term that covered both , ill any rate as far as the mouth of the Parret , if not further on in and the term was a general one , viz. “ Dumnonia ,” pre- norvod in the ancient “ Dyffneint ” We feel sure that , in King Alfred’s time, when the biographer Asser spoke of Dumnonia ” he meant a larger geographical term than what is meant now by Devonshire. The block of country along the North Somerset Coast , comprising the Hundreds of Canning- luii, Williton and Carhampton , all Royal Hundreds at Domesday, may have been a debateable region . Exmoor Forest was a kind of non-Parochial area , and indeed, it was not until xxxx that Exmoor Parish, as an ecclesiastical unit, was called into being , after the Royal Forest passed by purchase into private hands, the buyer being Mr. John Knight of Worcestershire.


When, after a long and obstinate conflict the Saxons finally conquered the Waelas and Dumnonians it is more than probable that the forts and strongholds of the Dumnonian chiefs and princes would,

like the ports, harbours and forests of Dumnonia,pass direct into the keeping of the Wessex kings and so, in time, become ancient demesne of the Crown , Vetus dominicum Coronae. Such, indeed, seems to have been the fate of the domain of East and West Camel which, for centuries, figures as part and parcel of the “ Eorinsecus ” or outer Hundred of Somerton, the erstwhile capital of the “ Sea moor settlers.”

At Domesday, Queen’s Camel, (as East Camel appears to have been named), was in the hands of Queen Gytha, Harold’s wife, like Puriton , Peritona, the port on the Parret, leading to the Poldens and Glaston. This territorial nexus, linking the reputed stronghold of King Arthur with the Saxon Royal demesne and so with Domesday may have a real historical value. If King Arthur was really slain in this part of Somerset, the story of his conveyance to Glaston across the flooded moors and meres, and perhaps by the Brue or Parret river would be obvious and simple. The coast voyage from Camlan in Cornwall was both long and arduous for a wounded man. In Somerset near Glaston the boat used might have been one of the boats (called “ bargiae ”) of the great Abbey itself— constructed for river navigation.
In Cornwall and in the neighbourhood of the famous Castle of Tintagel and its primitive harbour of Bude, (useful for Severn trows or light-draught ships of ancient pattern), the continuity of, first, British and then Saxon Royal or princely possession, may be even more striking. The “ Hundred of Stratton ” in Triconshire, i.e. Cornwall, appears in King Alfred’s will as a Royal Saxon holding bequeathed by Ethel- wolf to his sons. This would take us back to a.d. 800, nearly three hundred years before Domesday. That portion of Cornwall which included Tintagel the reputed birthplace of “ Rex Arturus ” descended to “ Rex Aelfredus ” and constitutes now what is probably the oldest “ membrum ”.


The kings of Dumnonia were the rulers of the large Brythonic kingdom of Dumnonia in the south-west of Great Britain during the Sub-Roman and early medieval periods.
A list of Dumnonian kings is one of the hardest of the major Dark Age kingdoms to accurately compile, as it is confused by Arthurian legend, complicated by strong associations with the kings of Wales and Brittany, and obscured by the Saxon advance. Therefore, this list should be treated with caution.
                                                                                                       

   Dumnonian kings
The original Celtic chiefs of the Dumnonii ruled in the south-west until faced with the Roman arrival into their territory in circa A D 55 when the Romans established a legionary fortress at Isca Dumnoniorum or modern Exeter. Although subjugated by c.AD 78, the civitas Dumnoniorum was one of the regions of Roman Britain least affected by Roman influence.
Known as Caer Uisc, Exeter was inhabited by Dumnonian Britons up until c.936 when King Athelstan expelled them. Several other royal residences may also have served the kings of Dumnonia or Cornwall, including Din-Tagell , modern Tintagel , and Cadbury Castle .  the old name for Devon the land of the dark valleys was pronounced by the Celts as Duvnant, which was later corrupted by the Romans to Dumnonia and was said by the Saxons as Defena.

Dartmoor, the backbone of the County of Devon.
Convulsive movements raised and lowered the land, so that the great rock mass became part of a vast continent which included the land which we now call France.



References in the works of Greek and Roman writers show that in pre-Roman times there was a flourishing civilization in the West of England, based on the trade in tin, which was used in the manufacture of bronze for weapons. This civilization had its centres near the tin-working areas on the Moor, but salt had to be brought from the coastal areas, and poor villages around the coast subsistence

,

SARUM Plain—the Salisbury Plain of our own day—an elevated platform of chalk, extending as far as the eye can reach in broad downs where man would seem to have no abiding place, presents a series of objects as interesting in their degree as the sands where the pyramids and sphinxes of ancient Egypt have stood for countless generations.

This plain would seem to be the cradle of English civilization.

The works of man in the earliest ages of the world may be buried beneath the hills or the rivers; but we can trace back the labours of those who have tenanted the same soil as ourselves, to no more remote period than is indicated by the stone circles, the barrows, the earth-works, of Salisbury Plain and its immediate neighbourhood.

The great wonder of Salisbury Plain,—the most remarkable monument of antiquity in our island, if we take into account its comparative preservation as well as its grandeur—is Stonehenge.

It is situated about seven miles north of Salisbury.

It may be most conveniently approached from the little town of Amesbury.

Passing by a noble Roman earth-work called the Camp of Vespasian, as we ascend out of the valley of the Avon, we gain an uninterrupted view of the undulating downs which surround us on every side. The name of Plain conveys an inadequate notion of the character of this singular district. The platform is not flat, as might be imagined ; but ridge after ridge leads the eye onwards to the bolder hills of the extreme distance, or the last ridge is lost in the low horizon. The peculiar character of the scene is that of the most complete solitude. It is possible that a shepherd boy may be descried watching his flocks nibbling the short thymy grass with which the downs are everywhere covered; but, with the exception of a shed or a hovel, there is no trace of human dwelling.

This peculiarity arises from the physical character of the district.

It is not that man is not here, but that his abodes are hidden in the little valleys.

On each bank of the Avon to the east of Stonehenge, villages and hamlets are found at every mile; and on the small branch of the Wyly to the west there is a cluster of parishes, each with its church, in whose names, such as Orcheston Maries, and Shrawston Virgo, we hail the tokens of institutions which left Stonehenge a ruin.

We must not hastily conclude, therefore, that this great monument of antiquity was set up in an unpeopled region; and that, whatever might be its uses, it was visited only by pilgrims from far-off places. But the aspect of Stonehenge, as we have said, is that of entire solitude.

The distant view is somewhat disappointing to the raised expectation.

The hull of a large ship, motionless on a wide sea, with no object near by which to measure its bulk, appears an insignificant thing: it is a speck in the vastness by which it is surrounded. Approach that ship, and the largeness of its parts leads us to estimate the grandeur cf the whole. So is it with Stonehenge.

The vast plain occupies so much of the eye that even a large town set down upon it would appear a hamlet. But as we approach the pile, the mind gradually becomes impressed with its real character.

It is now the Chorea Gigantum—the Choir of Giants; and the tradition that Merlin the Magician brought the stones from Ireland is felt to be a poetical
homage to the greatness of the work which are standing and some prostrate, form the-somewhat confused circular mass in the centre of the plan.




The the general arrangement of Stonehenge, and other similar monuments of Europe, led Sir William Ouseley to the natural conclusion that a “British Antiquary might be almost authorised to pronounce it Druidical, according to the general application of the word among us.” At Darab there is a peculiarity which is not found at Stonehenge, at least in its existing state. Under several of the stones there are recesses, or small caverns. In this particular, and in the general rudeness of its construction, the circle of Darab resembles the Druidical circle of Jersey (9),. although the circle there is very much smaller, and the stones of very inconsiderable dimensions,—a copy in miniature of such vast works as those of Stonehenge and Avebury.

This singular monument, which was found buried under the earth, was removed some fifty years ago by General Conway, to his seat near Henley, the stones being placed in his garden according to the original plan.

book We have
When we open the great store-house not only of divine truth but of authentic history, we find the clearest record that circles of stone were set up for sacred and solemn purposes. The stones which were taken by Joshua out of the bed of the Jordan, and set up in Gilgal, supply the most remarkable example. The name Gilgal itself signifies a circle. Gilgal subsequently became a place not only of sacred observances, but for the more solemn acts of secular government. It was long a controversy, idle enough as ‘'such controversies generally are, whether Stonehenge was appropriated to religious or to civil purposes.

If it is to be regarded as a Druidical monument, the discussion is altogether needless; for the Druids were, at one and the same time, the ministers of religion, the legislators, the judges, amongst the people. The account which Julius Caesar gives of the Druids of Gaul, marked as it is by his usual clearness and sagacity, may be received without hesitation as a description of the Druids of Britain : for he says, “ the system of Druidism is thought to have been formed in Britain, and from thence carried over into Gaul ; and now those who wish to be more accurately versed in it for the most part go thither (/. e. to Britain) in order to become acquainted with it.” Nothing can be more explicit than his account of the mixed office of the Druids: “ They are the ministers of sacred things; they have the charge of sacrifices, both public and private ; they give directions for the ordinances of religious worship (religiones interpretantur). A great number of young men resort to them for the purpose of instruction in their system, and they are held in the highest reverence.

For it is they who determine most disputes, whether of the affairs of the state or of individuals: and if any crime has been committed, if a man has been slain, if there is a contest concerning an inheritance or the boundaries of their lands, it is the Druids who settle the matter: they fix rewards and punishments : if any one, whether in an individual or public capacity, refuses to abide by their sentence, they forbid him to come to the sacrifices.  This punishment is among them very severe; those on whom this interdict is laid are accounted among the unholy and accursed ; all fly from them, and shun their approach and their conversation, lest they should be injured by their very touch ; they are placed out of the pale of the law, and excluded from all offices of honour.

” After noticing that a chief Druid, whose office is for life, presides over the rest, Csesar mentions a remarkable circumstance which at once accounts for the selection of such a spot as Sarum Plain, for the erection of a great national monument, a temple, and a seat of justice :—“ These Druids hold a meeting at a certain time of the year in a consecrated spot in the country of the Carnutes (people in the neighbourhood of Chartres), which country is considered to be in the centre of all Gaul. Hither assemble all from every part who have a litigation, and submit themselves to their determination and sentence.” At Stonehenge, then, we may place the seat of such an assize. There were roads leading direct over the plain to the great British towns of Winchester and Silchester. Across the plain, at a distance not exceeding twenty miles, was the great temple and Druidical settlement of Avebury. The town and hill-fort of Sarum was close at hand .

Over the dry chalky downs, intersected by a few streams easilv forded, might pilgrims resort from all the surrounding
The seat of justice which was also the seat of the highest unity, would necessarily be rendered as magnificent to accomplish. 

Discovery of Great Britain by the Romans.

The mercantile Phoenicians traded to the Scilly islands, the Cassiterides , or land of tin , from the port of Cadiz , four hundred years before Christ. The Romans, for a considerable time, could not discover the place from whence the former procured the precious metal. They attempted to detect the trade, by following the course of a Phoenician vessel; but the master, faithful to the interest of his country, voluntarily run his ship ashore in another place; preferring the loss of all, rather than sillier n. foreign nation to become partakers of so profitable a secret.

The public immediately compensated Iris loss out of its treasury . This did but make the Romans more eager for the discovery; and after many trials they succeeded. Publius Crassus (father of Marcus Crassus the Triumvir) who was praetor, and governed Spain for several years, landed in the Cassiterides, and found the report of their riches verified.

As soon as the Romans made a conquest of the country, they formed in the tin province camps and roads, still visible; and left behind vases, urns, sepulchres, and money, that exhibit daily proofs of their having been a stationary people in those parts” ; and that Dunmonium extended even to the Belerian promontory, or the Land’s-end


TIN

COPPER

And was not, as some writers imagine, limited by the western parts of Somersetshire.

It is not to be imagined, that they could neglect a corner of our island, productive of a metal so useful in mechanics as tin, and which it yielded in such plenty, as to receive from that circumstance the name.

So great was the intercourse that foreign nations had with the inhabitants bordering on Belerium, as to give them a greater scavoir vivre, and more extensive hospitality, than was to be found in other parts of the island.

They were equally expert in working the mines, and preparing the ore, which lay in earthy veins within the rocky strata.

They melted and purified it, then cast it into rows of cubes, and carried it to let is, the modern Mount St. Michael: from thence it was transported into Gaul; conveyed from the place it was landed at, on horses’ backs, a journey of thirty days, to the mouth of the Rhone, and also to the Massylians, and the town of Narbonne".

Copper. Did not Caesar and Strabo agree in their account, I should never have believed it possible that the Britons could have neglected their rich mines of copper, and have beenobliged at first to import that metal. Perhaps the ore was less accessible, and the art of fusion unknown; for islands, from their very situation, must remainlonger ignorant of arts than continents; especially ours, which lay far to the west of the origin of all science.

Strabo says, that the Britons imported works of brass; but it is as certain, that they afterwards did themselves fabricate that metal into instruments.

The Celts, a British, instrument, was made in this island.

Numbers have been found in Yorkshire, and Essex", together with cinders, and lumps of melted metal; which evince the place of a forge. The Romans had then founderies of copper in our island; and cast the metal into regular forms.

A mass was found at Caer hen, the antient Conovium, four miles above Conway,which probably was smelted from the ore of the Snowdon hills; where of late years much has been raised.

This mass is in shape of a cake of beeswax; and on the upper part is a deep concave impression, with the words Socio Romae; across these is impressed obliquely, in lesser letters, Natsol.

I cannot explain it, unless Nat. stands for Natio, the people who paid this species of tribute; and sol. for solvit, that being the stamp-master’s mark. These cakes might be bought up hy a merchant resident in Britain, and consigned Socio RomaE, to his partner at Rome.

The weight of this antiquity is forty-two pounds;

TIN. COPPER. and was not, as some writers imagine, limited by the western parts of Somersetshire. It is not to be imagined, that they could neglect a corner of our island, productive of a metal so useful in mechanics as tin, and which it yielded in such plenty, as to receive from that circumstance the name.
So great was the intercourse that foreign nations had with the inhabitants bordering on Belerium,
as to give them a greater scavoir vivre, and more extensive hospitality, than was to be found in other parts of the island. They were equally expert in working the mines, and preparing the ore, which
lay in earthy veins within the rocky strata. They melted and purified it, then cast it into rows of cubes, and carried it to let is, the modern Mount St. Michael: from thence it was transported into Gaul; conveyed from the place it was landed at, on horses’ backs, a journey of thirty days, to the mouth of the Rhone, and also to the Massylians, and the town of Narbonne".
Copper.

Did not Caesar and Strabo agree in their account, I should never have believed it possible
that the Britons could have neglected their rich mines of copper, and have been obliged at first to import that metal. Perhaps the ore was less
accessible, and the art of fusion unknown; for islands, from their very situation, must remain

 



The world is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page   Saint Augustine


Sir FRANCIS YOUNGHUSBAND , the President of the Royal Geographical Society , remarked in his address at the Anniversary Meeting, 29th May, 1922, that the time had arrived for the emer gence of a new type of explorer—viz. the Homeland explorer , who will explore, observe and describe his own homeland .

I have endeavoured, magno intervallo no doubt , to throw some light upon what may be termed

“ Ancient Dumnonia.”

This is a point in which all Devonians” and, indeed, dwellers in the three western counties of Somerset, Devon and Cornwall may be especially interested.

“ Dumnonia,” like “ Demetia ” and “ Demetica regio," is a very ancient geographical term

and the Dumnonii certainly go back to Roman times and were noted for their sea faring qualities.

 

In King Alfred’s time “ Dumnonia” was used by the King’s Biographer, Bishop Asser,

and would certainly mean a good deal more than we now mean by the County of Devon which meets Somerset at Countisbury Gate and Exmoor.

But until we are sure of the exact meaning of, say, " Dumnonia ” and “ Demetica regio ” how can we follow King Alfred’s great Danish campaign of 878 ?

Historical problems wait for their real solution upon the proper explanation of geographical terms.

Many disputes have turned and still turn upon the exact site of Cynuit and Ethandune, two very momentous fights in our island history. There is an Edington Dumnonia

 

Ancient Dumnonia . at what time the existing boundaries between West Somerset and North Devon were universally acknowledged is not clear and this uncertainty, dating far back in County annals, has continued even up to modern times. Florence of Worcester (a.d. 1118) in his Chronicle, when recording the Danish Foray up the Severn Sea in a .d . 997, described it as made upon " Watchet in Devonshire.” Watchet or Wacet, the small Saxon port on the north coast of Somerset, lies many miles within the County borders and , in Domesday (1086) was certainly located within the County as a place of ancient importance.

Moreover,  in the Somerset Exchequer Lay Subsidies Watchet figured as a Somerset “ Burgus ” or Burgh.

There was the same popular uncertainty about Exmoor and Exmoor Forest, that well-known Royal preserve, which, according to all records we have of Forest Courts and Forest proceedings from the earliest times , was always reckoned a Somerset Forest.

This undoubted fact seems to have been lout sight of, or forgotten, when, in the days of Charles I Kmlymion Porter, a Court favourite asked for Simonsbath ioi a porquisite for himself describing it in his application as lying “ within Devon.”

Even Sir Henry Spelman in his  'dialogue of Royal Forests, c. 1670, places Exmoor in Devon ; Spelman’s Glossary “ Forestae.”

2 Dumnonia In this particular case of Exmoor Forest where the Devon Parishes of Countisbury and Brendon and, it may be added, Lynton, and Parracombe, are so close to the north-west corner of the Forest,

and Devon landowners and farmers have for so long exercised Common rights on the Forest and along its “ purlieus,” some confusion may be natural. It was a question about which many appeared to be ill-informed or careless.

The antiquary Leland knew the boundaries hereabouts when he wrote in his Itinery (a .d . 1538) :

“ The bounds of Somersetshire go beyond the stream (i.e. the Barle) one way by north west a 2 miles or more to a plain called the Spanne and the Tourres ;

for there be hillocks of yerth cast up of auncient tyme for markes and Limites between Somersetshire and Devonshire and hereabout is the Limes and Bounds of Exmoor Forest.

” This would be in the neighbourhood of what is now called “ The Duck-Pool Allotment ” and “ Moles Chamber,” and “ Shoulsbury Castle,” the latter being in Devonshire.

But leaving one antiquary for another what can be said of the learned Sir William Dugdale who, in his Epitome of the “ Monasticon,” locates the alien Priory of Stoke Courcy in Devonshire whereas it lay close to the mouth of the River Parret ?] Or what indeed, to the Reverend Richard Warner of Bath, a west country topographer and pedestrian in his day, who when crossing the Parret at Comwich during one of his “ Walks ” to the West (1800),

noticed what he termed the “ hills of Devon ” as seen from Comwich Passage, meaning - surely the Quantock Hills or, perhaps the “ triple-crowned ” Dunkery, all in Somerset.

To this day, indeed, many visitors to the West think or speak of Exmoor as lying in Devonshire.

The very expression of “ The Devon and Somerset stag hounds ” fosters the illusion although, as a matter of fact,

neither the runs or meets of the pack take place as a rule , within Devon , but almost always within the accepted borders of Somerset.

 

There is, we believe, some grounds for these historical uncertainties about the geography of North Devon and West 1.

See Strachey’s List of Religious Houses in Somersetshire—Stoke Courey.

Ancient Dumnonia 3

Humor,not, both countries appearing to have fallen largely within the bounds of one geographical term that covered both , ill any rate as far as the mouth of the Parret, if not further on i and the term was a general one, viz. “ Dumnonia,” pre-norvod in the ancient “ Dyffneint” We feel sure that, in King Alfred’s time, when the biographer Asser spoke of Dumnonia ” he meant a larger geographical term than what is meant now by Devonshire.

The block of country along the NorthSomerset Coast, comprising the Hundreds of Canning VVilliton and Carhampton, all Royal Hundreds at Domesday, may have been a debateable region.

Exmoor Forest was a kind of non-Parochial area, and indeed, it was not until later that Exmoor Parish, as an ecclesiastical unit, was called Into being, after the Royal Forest passed by purchase into private hands, the buyer being Mr. John Knight of Worcester shire.

In the twelfth century there was an “ Archdeacon ul Heyond Parret,” so described, meaning the present Arch- deacunry of Taunton. The whole question of the evolution of a " Shire” is interesting especially as Somerset and Dorset Inn I I liu same Shire Reeve (sheriff) up to 1566.

Asser,  describes the county as “ Summurtunensis Paga ” in region round Somerton ( Sea-moor Town ). He also  who with the help of Diinmonii fought in 851 against the Pagans at Wicgambeorg, * Wigborough near South Petherton.


 

[ˈɔɣam]




The Isle of Man may be a small and - particularly when Time Team was there - wet and windy island stuck in the middle of the Irish Sea.

But it's crammed full of influences from British,  Irish and even Viking incomers. In fact, it's been a cultural crossroads for thousands of years, including a time when Christianity vied with Norse paganism to be the island's principal religion.

One of the legacies of this battle for dominance were the keeills - small, simple chapels that were once found scattered right across the island. Yet today, every single one of these ancient monuments has been destroyed by agriculture, built over by later medieval churches, or dug often very badly by antiquarians.

All, that is, except one which has lain protected beneath the seventh fairway of the Mount Murray golf course, marked only by a patch of unkempt grass and a single standing stone atop a small mound. Time Team was given the unique opportunity to excavate the only known untouched keeill remaining on the Isle of Man.

[ˈɔɣam]
Ogham is an alphabet that appears on monumental inscriptions dating from the 4th to the 6th century AD, and in manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 9th century. It was used mainly to write Primitive and Old Irish, and also to write Old Welsh, Pictish and Latin. It was inscribed on stone monuments throughout Ireland, particuarly Kerry, Cork and Waterford, and in England, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales, particularly in Pembrokeshire in south Wales.
The name Ogham is pronounced [ˈoːm] or [ˈoːəm] in Modern Irish, and it was spelt ogam and pronounced [ˈɔɣam] in Old Irish. Its origins are uncertain: it might be named after the Irish god Ogma, or after the Irish phrase og-úaim (point-seam), which refers to the seam made by the point of a sharp weapon. Ogham is also known as or ogham craobh (tree ogham) beth luis fearn or beth luis nion, after the first few letters.
Ogham probably pre-dates the earliest inscriptions - some scholars believe it dates back to the 1st century AD - as the language used shows pre-4th century elements. It is thought to have been modelled on or inspired by the Roman, Greek or Runic scripts. It was designed to write Primitive Irish and was possibly intended as a secret form of communication.
While all surviving Ogham inscriptions are on stone, it was probably more commonly inscribed on sticks, stakes and trees. Inscriptions are mostly people's names and were probably used to mark ownership, territories and graves. Some inscriptions in primitive Irish and Pictish have not been deciphered, there are also a number of bilingual inscriptions in Ogham and Latin, and Ogham and Old Norse written with the Runic alphabet.  letters: 25, which are grouped into five  Each aicme is named after its first letter. Originally Ogham consisted of 20 letters or four aicmí; the fifth acime, or Forfeda, was added for use in manuscripts.
Writing surfaces: rocks, wood, manuscripts
Direction of writing: inscribed around the edges of rocks running from bottom to top and left to right, or left to right and horizontally in manuscripts.
Letters are linked together by a solid line.
Used to write: Primitive and Old Irish, Pictish, Old Welsh and Latin

Numus honoratur sine. Numo nullus amatur.

Money is honoured, without money nobody is loved
From: The Annals of Inisfallen of 1193

From: The Book of Ballymote (Leabhar Bhaile an Mhóta), written in 1390 or 1391.


Then again towards the North of Europe , there is evidently a quantity of gold by far larger than in any other land:

as to how it is got , here again I am not able to say for certain , but it is said to be carried off from the griffins by Arimaspians, a one-eyed race of men.But I do not believe this tale either, that nature produces one-eyed men which in all other respects are like other men. However  it would seem that the extremities which bound the rest of the world on every side and enclose it in the midst possess the things which by us are thought to be the most beautiful and the most rare.  This is a point in which all "Devonians” and,indeed ,dwellers in the three western counties of  Somerset , Devon and Cornwall may be especially interested.“ Dumnonia, ” like “ Demetia ” and “ Demetica regio", is a very ancient geographical term and the Dumnonii certainly go back to Roman times and were noted for their sea fairing qualities.


In King Alfred’s time “ Dumnonia” was used by the King’s Biographer, Bishop Asser, and would certainly mean a good deal more than we now mean by the County of Devon which meets Somerset at Countisbury Gate and Exmoor.


But until we are sure of the exact meaning of say, " Dumnonia ” and “ Demetica regio how can we follow King Alfred’s great Danish campaign of 878   Historical problems wait for their real solution upon the proper explanation of geographical terms.

 Many disputes have turned and still turn upon the exact site of Cynuit and Ethandune, two very momentous fights in our island history........There is an Edington Dumnonia !

 saxon map turns 

No doubt there were all along tares mingled with the wheat. The Church of the first three centuries was never, except perhaps on the day of Pentecost, in an absolutely ideal condition.
But yet during the ages of persecution, the Church
as a whole was visibly an unworldly institution.

It was a spiritual empire in recognized antagonism with the world-empire.But from the time of the conversion of Constantine, a .d . 312, and still more completely from the time of Theodosius the Great, a d 379 , the Church and . the world seemed, in some respects at any rate, to have made terms with each other.The world, without ceasing to be the world, was no longer outside, but had been admitted within the sacred enclosure.And that Roman world of the fourth century, what a detestable world it was ! On this point Christian writers of every school seem to be agreed.The fervent and eloquent Roman Catholic Montalembert quotes and adopts the words of the Protestant Guizot, who says, “ The sovereigns and the immense majority of the people had embraced Christianity;but at bottom civil society was pagan; it retained the institutions, the laws, and the manners of paganism.It was a society which paganism, and not Christianity, had made.” 1 Montalembert adds that “ this paganism . . . was paganism under its most degenerate form . , . Nothing,” he says, “ has...............

ever equalled the abject condition of the Romans of
the empire. . . . With the ancient freedom, all virtue,
all manliness disappeared.

There remained only a society of officials, without strength, without honour,
and without rights. . . . We must acknowledge that
in this so-called Christian society, the moral poverty
is a thousand times greater than the material, and
that servitude has crushed souls more than bodies.
Everything is enervated, attenuated, and decrepit.
Not a single great man, nor illustrious individual
rises to the surface of that mire. Eunuchs and sophists of the court govern the state without control,
experiencing no resistance but from the Church.”
These last words guard Montalembert’s meaning.
He is speaking of civil society, which was now nominally inside the Church; but, side by side with this Christianized paganism, the Church still handed on the glorious traditions which had been bequeathed to her by the age of the martyrs.

Though it may be true that the civil society of the fourth and fifth centuries produced no great men, yet the hierarchy the Church produced a galaxy of heroes.


Let me state only five, Saint Athanasius, Saint Basil , Saint Ambrose,
Saint Christostum and Saint Augustine. A religious instil tion which can produce such splendid names is
full of life; but nevertheless the
Ohurch whioh had admitted the world within her
precincts, was in a very different condition from the
Church during the first three centuries of her
I op. eit., pp. 264, 269, 271, 272,


1 Guizot, Histoire de la Civilization en France, leot. ii., quoted in
Montalembert’s Monks of the West (English tram, 1861, i. 263).

silchesterHistoric Scenes along the Norwich Road By Charles G. Harper Historian of the British Highways Chapter XL1VThe old coaching road to Norwich,


the present admirable highway, is measured from Whitechapel Church, and is 111. 1/2 miles in length.In Aldgate High Street were once a number of coaching inns.The most famous of these, the Bull, was kept in its most prosperous period by the widowed Mrs. Ann Nelson. It gave up business in 1869, and all the others are gone, too. We hear much in dispraise of the East End of London, chiefly by those who know little of it.The Whitechapel Road and portions of the Mile End Road are inhabited, it is true, largely by aliens, but the generous width of the road here is something that other exits from London cannot boast.Passing the picturesque Trinity Almshouses for decayed sailormen, we come to Bow. It is properly “ Stratford-le-Bow,” but in these hurried days we have not time for all that.The old church stands islanded in the midst of the road, with a bronze statue of Mr. W. E. Gladstone, set up in his lifetime, in front of it. “ Strat-ford,” the “ street ford ”— that is to say, the ford on the old Roman road, acquired the additional “ le-Bow ” when the first bridge was built there, over the river Lea, at the suggestion of the good Queen Maud, consort of Henry I. The arch (arc) or “ bow ” of a bridge was thought then so remarkable that it gave a name to the place. We do not, in these latter days, leave London’s suburbs behind until Ilford is passed and Romford, twelve and a half miles from Whitechapel, is entered. Whether the name of “ Romford ” derives from “ the Roman ford ” or a ford on a stream called the Rom has not been decided ;but no doubt can exist at all in the traveller’s mind as to what is the leading industry of the town, for the huge brewery sufficiently informs him. This is Essex, and that county usually is thought to be flat. That is a popular illusion. The road from Romford to Brentwood, which is very hilly, clearly demonstrates this The Fleece inn, on the way, is a picturesque old hostelry, and in Brentwood town itself the White Hart keeps in its yard some remains of an older house. An obelisk and an old elm-tree in the main street mark the spot where William Hunter was burnt in the Marian persecution of 1555. Brentwood stands on a lofty ridge, whence we descend past Shenfield to Mountnessing, with a picturesque windmill on the left. The original village was one mile away to the right, where the ancient church is situated. Two miles along the road comes Ingatestone, a village of one long and narrow street, very old-world, and with a red brick church that does by no means look its age, which exceeds four centuries. Within is the monument of that Sir William Petre who was, in the reign of Henry VIII, enriched with the manor of Tngatestone. His old home, plundered from the nuns of Barking, is Ingatestone Hall, whose quaint entrance gateway is on the right. The hall is the scene of Miss Braddon’s novel entitled “ Lady Audley’s Secret.” Forward to Margaretting— i.e. “ Margaret’s Meadow.” The Margaret thus honoured is the saint to whom the church is dedicated. Hence, past the long wall of Hylands Park, we enter Chelmsford, past Widford and Moulsham. Chelmsford, early in the nineteenth century, so modernised itself, that little of the older town remains. The parish church has in recent years become the cathedral of a new diocese, and the prison at Springfield, at the farther end of Chelmsford, after being used as a prison for Germans during the Great War, has now been devoted to other purposes. Apart from that inimical establishment, Springfield is a pretty village, lately expanded into a suburb of Chelmsford. It gives a name to the town of Springfield, Massachusetts. Beyond this are the lodges of New Hall, which was new in the fifteenth century. It is now a convent. On the right is Bore- ham House, with a long and impressive vista formed by an avenue of noble elms and a lake. Here is preserved the carriage used by the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo. The old-world village of Boreham, embowered amid lime-trees, ishidden away from the road, on the right. Through the quaint village of Hatfield Peverel we come to Witham, whose oldest part lies off to the left, at Chipping Hill, where the church stands within the cincture of a prehistoric camp, later occupied by the Romans. Thence we go to Kelvedon, through Riven- hall. All around Kelvedon the Essex industry of seed-growing is largely followed. At Kelvedon that famous preacher, Charles Haddon Spurgeon, was born in 1834, at a cottage in the main street which afterwards became the Wheatsheaf inn. Approaching Colchester, through the pretty village of Lexden, we come into a district rich in Romano- British history. For Colchester, the “ Colonia Camu- lodunum ” of the Roman occupation of Britain for close upon five centuries, was, after “ Verulamium,” the most important of Roman cities, and wears even to-day the marks of that forceful people. The entrance to Colchester is singular. From the straight road through its modern suburbs it makes the sharpest of turns to the left, and thus enters the precincts of the ancient walled town. A good deal of the Roman walls remain, notably in Balkerne Lane, where the church of S. Mary-on-the-Wall stands. But the most spectacular object in Colchester is a something that is by no means Roman. It is “Jumbo.”WHERE THE NORWICH ROAD LEAVES LONDON BY ALDGATE AND BOW CHURCH Aldgate High Street is now a busy and rather dingy thoroughfare.Most of its antiquities disappeared in wholesale rebuilding from about 1860 onwards.In the fourteenth century the district,which took its name from one of the city gates, was called Ale Gate, and Stow, the great London historian, spells it Ealdegate. Being very near the royal residence of the Tower, it was once an aristocratic part of London. Bow Church (top) is not to be confused with its namesake in Cheapside.Bow is properly Stratford-le-Bow, bow meaning a bridge.


Tuesday, 26 March 2019
The materials produced are quite unlike the early Roman pottery usually found, which has much Belgic influence in Wollaston
in the 2nd century, and soon became surrounded by suburban ‘overspill’. In the large areas between these were very many villa-farms and smaller steads.

The villa-farms generally occupied only a few acres, and so are too small to be called villages, but were rather larger than single-family modern farms. They supported the Roman Imperial economy by cattle-rearing and agriculture.

Many farms were superimposed on previous Belgic or Iron Age farm sites, and probably to a certain extent used the same field systems and employed the original Celtic populace as labourers.
Proof of a continuity of Iron Age traditions came from the various hut-circle ditches found on Roman sites. At Wollaston, off Hinwick Road, a hut circle of diameter 40 feet with an entrance 13 feet wide had an off-centre hearth made of two large roofing tiles. Both of these tiles had numerals incised on them before firing. In the ditch was a large quantity of early 2nd century a.d. pottery44.
At Deanshanger, similar penannular ditches were found46.

Gravel workings at Ringstead revealed a hut circle underlying a stone-built circular structure 30 feet in diameter46. The most complicated stone examples known in the neighbourhood are at Bozeat. One, dating from the early 3rd century, is 48 feet in diameter with four central pier, or post, bases and a few cross walls47.
Only a few such structures are known, and the plan is near-identical with an Iron Age wooden structure at Little Woodbury, Wilts., dating from c. 300 B.C.48. At an estate south of Bozeat High Street there is another site with circular buildings, also of the 3rd century49. Examples have also been discovered in Oxfordshire50.
Villa-farms are certainly the norm of the many Romano-British sites scattered over the whole of Northamptonshire. A few of them had central heating, bath suites, mosaic floors, and painted walls. At Easton Maudit, trial excavations revealed a substantial building with hypocaust box tiles (used to conduct hot air along the walls) and a crude mosaic floor. This was substantially built with a layer of hard-core supporting firm mortar which supported a white very hard plaster in which the stones were embedded. Instead of a design composed of different coloured stones, the floor was made of small stones with a design painted on. Recently a fine floor has been discovered at Thenford61. Several have been known for many years, e.g. those at Nether Heyford noted by Morton (in 1712) and by the Victoria County History.
Bath suites are usually only recognized by large scale excavation. Total excavation of a villa at Brixworth, north of the church, revealed a complicated bath suite with hot and cold compartments52.
At least two of the Roman sites known at Wollaston seem likely to have been villas, according to the debris in the top soil. A fine aerial photograph of the villa site near Cut-Throat Bridge shows the plan, with a corridor and series of rooms, and some surrounding enclosures.
Painted wall-plaster does not survive in ploughsoil, and so is only known at those sites that have been excavated. At the Brixworth villa several motifs were recovered, and at the housing estate at Bozeat a considerable quantity of fine quality 3rd-century plaster survived in the building debris.
Of the Roman towns there is a very imperfect plan of Chester made by Baker, vicar of Hargrave, in 1879, showing various buildings including a temple. In the 1920s and 1930s many rich finds were found during ironstone quarrying in the cemetery east of the town. These now seem to be lost for the most part, except for some bowls in Northampton Museum. Aerial photographs show the road-plan of Chester to consist of winding lanes rather than the usual grid pattern. These probably represent a continuity from an Iron Age settlement53.
Excavation and aerial photographs at Castor have led to the compilation of a very complicated plan, but again outside the town proper, and not at all regular54.
Of Roman industry there are many remains, principally relating to potters. The invading legions brought with them their own potters, who operated wherever the military was stationed. Such a site has recently been found at Longthorpe. The materials produced are quite unlike the early Roman pottery usually found, which has much Belgic influence. Early kilns, dating from the late 1st century, have been found under the circular buildings at Bozeat. The area of the Nene valley east of Northampton was the centre of an early industry; this, however, later became less important. In later Roman times, the area north of the town of Durobrivae in the parish of Castor was the centre of a very large pottery. The main products were colour-coated wares, often with fine relief designs, finished in white on a black or red background. This pottery was traded throughout the country.
The other industry practised in the south and north of the county was iron smelting. Large areas of black dense slag can be found in fields in the old Rockingham Forest. Each represents a bloomery site where iron was smelted. Some of these sites are several miles away from the nearest ironstone because it was easier to carry the ore to the wooded areas where charcoal was made. This was because the ratio of iron to charcoal needed is about 1:5. Recent excavations of a slag patch at Wakerley55 showed the small clay furnace to be quite miniscule, about 9 inches in diameter. Analysis of the slag shows that no flux was used, and much iron remains as dense black silicate.

Industry and agriculture meet in the process of corndrying. The sitesio Wollaston
in the 2nd century, and soon became surrounded by suburban ‘overspill’. In the large areas between these were very many villa-farms and smaller steads. The villa-farms generally occupied only a few acres, and so are too small to be called villages, but were rather larger than single-family modern farms. They supported the Roman Imperial economy by cattle-rearing and agriculture. Many farms were superimposed on previous Belgic or Iron Age farm sites, and probably to a certain extent used the same field systems and employed the original Celtic populace as labourers.
Proof of a continuity of Iron Age traditions came from the various hut-circle ditches found on Roman sites. At Wollaston, off Hinwick Road, a hut circle of diameter 40 feet with an entrance 13 feet wide had an off-centre hearth made of two large roofing tiles. Both of these tiles had numerals incised on them before firing. In the ditch was a large quantity of early 2nd century a.d. pottery44.
At Deanshanger, similar penannular ditches were found46. Gravel workings at Ringstead revealed a hut circle underlying a stone-built circular structure 30 feet in diameter46. The most complicated stone examples known in the neighbourhood are at Bozeat. One, dating from the early 3rd century, is 48 feet in diameter with four central pier, or post, bases and a few cross walls47.
Only a few such structures are known, and the plan is near-identical with an Iron Age wooden structure at Little Woodbury, Wilts., dating from c. 300 B.C.48. At an estate south of Bozeat High Street there is another site with circular buildings, also of the 3rd century49. Examples have also been discovered in Oxfordshire50.
Villa-farms are certainly the norm of the many Romano-British sites scattered over the whole of Northamptonshire.

A few of them had central heating, bath suites, mosaic floors, and painted walls.At Easton Maudit, trial excavations revealed a substantial building with hypocaust box tiles (used to conduct hot air along the walls) and a crude mosaic floor.This was substantially built with a layer of hard-core supporting firm mortar which supported a white very hard plaster in which the stones were embedded. Instead of a design composed of different coloured stones, the floor was made of small stones with a design painted on. Recently a fine floor has been discovered at Thenford61. Several have been known for many years,

e.g. those at Nether Heyford noted by Morton (in 1712) and by the Victoria County History.
Bath suites are usually only recognized by large scale excavation. Total excavation of a villa at Brixworth, north of the church, revealed a complicated bath suite with hot and cold compartments52.
At least two of the Roman sites known at Wollaston seem likely to have general plan and some details o f every great work of art, of ruinous or entire, before the mind can properly apply which belong to it. In Stonehenge this especially necessary; for however the imagination by the magnitude o f those masses of stone which in their places, by the grandeur even of the fragments
or broken in'their fall, by the consideration of the vast required to bring such ponderous substances to this desolate
spot, and by surmise o f the nature of.the mechanical skill by which they were lifted up and placed in order and proportion, it is not till the entire plan is fully comprehended that we can properly
surrender ourselves to the contemplations which belong to this remarkable scene. It is then, when we can figure to ourselves a
perfect structure, composed of such huge materials symmetrically arranged, and possessing, therefore, that beauty which is the result
of symmetry, that we can satisfactorily look back through the dim light of history or tradition to the object for which such a structure
was destined. The belief now appears tolerably settled that Stonehenge was a temple of the Druids. It differs, however, from all other Druidical remains, in the circumstance that greater mechanical art was employed in its construction, especially in the superincumbent stones of the outer circle and of the trilithons, fromwhich it is supposed to derive its name; stan being the Saxon for a stone, and heng to hang or support. From this circumstance it is maintained that Stonehenge is of the very latest ages of Druidism; and that the Druids that wholly belonged to the ante-historic period
followed the example of those who observed the command of the law : “ If thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast
polluted it.” (Exodus, chap. xx.) Regarding Stonehenge as a work
of masonry and architectural proportions, Inigo Jones came to the
conclusion that it was a Roman Temple of the Tuscan order. This
was an architect’s dream. Antiquaries, with less of taste and fancy
that Inigo Jones, have had their dreams also about Stonehenge, almost as wild as the legend of Merlin flying away with the stones
from the Curragh of Kildare. Some attribute its erection to the Britons after the invasion of the Romans. Some bring it down to as recent a period as that of the usurping Danes. Others again
carry it back to the early days of the Phoenicians. The first notice of Stonehenge is found in the writings of Nennius, who lived in the ninth century of the Christian era. He says that at the spot
where Stonehenge stands a conference was held between Hengist and Vortigern, at which Hengist treacherously murdered four
hundred and sixty British nobles, and that their mourning survivors erected the temple to commemorate the fatal event. Mr. Davies, a modern writer upon Celtic antiquities, holds that Stonehenge
was the place of this conference between the British and Saxon princes, on account of its venerable antiquity and peculiar sanctity.
There is a passage in Diodorus Siculus, quoted from Hecataeus, which describes a round temple in Britain dedicated to A p ollo; and this
Mr. Davies concludes to have been Stonehenge. By another
writer, Dr. Smith, Stonehenge is maintained to have been “ the grand orrery of the Druids,” representing, by combinations of its
stones, the ancient solar year, the lunar month, the twelve signs of
the zodiac, and the seven planets. Lastly, Stonehenge has been pronounced to be a temple of Budha, the Druids being held to be a
race of emigrated Indian philosophers. Startling as this last assertion may appear to be, a variety of facts irresistibly lead to the conclusion that the circles, the stones of
memorial, the cromlechs, and other monuments of the highest antiquity in these islands, have a distinct resemblance to other monuments of the same character scattered over Asia and Europe, and even found in the New World, which appear to have had a common origin. In Great Britain and Ireland, in Jersey and Guernsey, in France, in Germany in Denmark and Sweden, such monuments are found extensively dispersed. They are found also, though more rarely in the Netherlands. Portugal, and M alta in Gozo and Phoenicia. But their presence is also unquestionable in Malabar,
in India, in Palestine, in Persia. Figures 7 and 8 represent a Druidical circle, and a single upright stone standing alone near the circle, which are described by Sir William Ouseley
him at Darab, in the province of Fars. in are copied from those in Sir William Ouseley
them upon the same page with the If we had obliterated the Oriental figures might easily receive them as
from another point of view. The book We have the general arrangement of Stonehenge, and other similar monuments of Europe, led Sir William Ouseley to the natural conclusion that a “ British Antiquary might be almost authorised to pronounce it Druidical, according to the general application of the word
among us.” A t Darab there is a peculiarity which is not found at Stonehenge, at least in its existing state. Under several of the stones there are recesses, or small caverns. In this particular, and
in the general rudeness of its construction, the circle of Darab resembles the Druidical circle of Jersey (9),. although the circle
there is very much smaller, and the stones o f very inconsiderable
dimensions,— a copy in miniature of such vast works as those of Stonehenge and Avebury. This singular monument, which was found buried under the earth, was removed some fifty years ago by General Conway, to his seat near Henley, the stones being placed in his garden according to the original plan.
When we open the great store-house not only of divine truth but of authentic history, we find the clearest record that circles of stone
were set up for sacred and solemn purposes. The stones which were taken by Joshua out o f the bed of the Jordan, and set up in Gilgal, supply the most remarkable example. The name Gilgal
itself signifies a circle. Gilgal subsequently became a place not only of sacred observances, but for the more solemn acts of secular government. It was long a controversy, idle enough as ‘'such
controversies generally are, whether Stonehenge was appropriated to religious or to civil purposes. If it is to be regarded as a Druidical monument, the discussion is altogether needless; for the Druids were, at one and the same time, the ministers of religion, the legislators, the judges, amongst the people. The account which Julius Caesar gives of the Druids of Gaul, marked as it is by his
usual clearness and sagacity, may be received without hesitation
as a description of the Druids of Britain : for he says, “ the system
of Druidism is thought to have been formed in Britain, and from
thence carried over into Gaul ; and now those who wish to be more
accurately versed in it for the most part go thither (/. e. to Britain)
in order to become acquainted with it.” Nothing can be more explicit than his account of the mixed office of the Druids: “ They
are the ministers o f sacred things; they have the charge o f sacrifices, both public and private ; they give directions for the ordinances of religious worship (religiones interpretantur). A great
number of young men resort to them for the purpose of instruction
in their system, and they are held in the highest reverence. For it
is they who determine most disputes, whether of the affairs of the
state or of individuals: and if any crime has been committed, if a
man has been slain, if there is a contest concerning an inheritance
or the boundaries of their lands, it is the Druids who settle the
matter: they fix rewards and punishments : if any one, whether in
an individual or public capacity, refuses to abide by their sentence,
they forbid him to come to the sacrifices. This punishment is among
them very severe; those on whom this interdict is laid are accounted among the unholy and accursed ; all fly from them, and
shun their approach and their conversation, lest they should be injured by their very touch ; they are placed out of the pale of the
law, and excluded from all offices of honour.” After noticing that a chief Druid, whose office is for life, presides over the rest, Csesar
mentions a remarkable circumstance which at once accounts for the
selection of such a spot as Sarum Plain, for the erection of a great
national monument, a temple, and a seat of justice :— “ These
Druids hold a meeting at a certain time of the year in a consecrated
spot in the country of the Carnutes (people in the neighbourhood of Chartres), which country is considered to be in the centre of all Gaul. Hither assemble all from every part who have a litigation, and submit themselves to their determination and sentence.” At
Stonehenge, then, we may place the seat of such an assize. There were roads leading direct over the plain to the great British towns of Winchester and Silchester. Across the plain, at a distance not exceeding twenty miles, was the great temple and Druidical settlement of Avebury. The town and hill-fort of Sarum was close at hand . Over the dry chalky downs, intersected by a few streams easilv forded, mig ht pilgrims resort from all the surrounding The seat of justice which was also the seat of the highest unity, would necessarily be rendered as magnificent
Id accomplish. Stonehenge might be of a later than Avebury, with its mighty circles and long avenues of tu.Iars : but it might also be of the same period,— the one . sned by its vastness, the other by its beauty of proportion, sriee executed in that judgment-seat was, according to :e?timonv. bloodv a


Britannia in the Ravenna Cosmography: a reassessment K J Fitzpatrick-Matthews

This does not solve the problem of why the Cosmographer should have seen Isca Dumnoniorum, Exeter, as a point at which to insert a break in his listing. The Peutinger Table may offer a clue: although Britain is severely truncated, with only East Anglia and Kent appearing on the surviving copy, Moridunum and Isca Dumnoniorum are also shown without any intervening south-coast places. It is possible that Isca Dumnoniorum was depicted as prominent in some way, perhaps isolated on a promontory or, as seems more likely, as the gateway to a peninsula (as suggested by Rivet & Smith 1979, 200). In this way the Cosmographer might have decided to break his text at a point which appeared dictated by the geography of the region. He does so further north, where his listing of the Antonine Wall forts occurs ‘where that same Britain is seen to be narrowest from sea to sea’ (ubi et ipsa britania plus angustissima de oceano in oceanum esse dinoscitur 10750 to 10751). Although this was not the primary reason for inserting a break at this latter point, the Cosmographer was clearly sensitive to the depicted shape of the island.



On the other hand ,

we should perhaps take into account the curious fact that the Civitas Dumnoniorum , basically the Cornish peninsula west of Exeter appears to have been a part of Britain virtually unaffected by those changes to élite behaviour usually termed ‘romanisation’.

 Is it possible that much of it lay outside provincial or diocesan control and that some kind of border was depicted on the Cosmographer’s map source as separating the south-western peninsula from the rest of Britain?In that case,Isca Dumnoniorum may have been prominent as a point of contact between the wilds of the far south-west and the more ‘civilised’ Durotriges (or Durotrages, following RIB 1673: the form of the name is very uncertain according to Rivet & Smith 1979, 352) to the east.

Group 1: the Cornish Peninsula V ¶31 in qua britania plurimas fuisse ciuitates et castra legimus ex quibus aliquantas designare uolumus id est:
Giano Barnstaple ? 10546
Eltabo River Taw 10546
Elconio River Torridge ? 10547
Nemetotatio North Tawton 10547
Tamaris Launceston ? 10548
Puro coronauis ? 10548
Pilais ? 10549
Vernilis Liskeard ? 10549
Ardua rauenatone River Dart 10550
Deuionisso Statio ? 10551
deuentia steno Buckfastleigh / Totnes ? 10551/10552
Duriarno Plymouth 10552
Vxelis Barnstaple ? 1061
Verteuia Land’s End 1061 = 1069
This group appears to take us on a general perambulation of the Cornish Peninsula and adjacent area.

*Fl Taua, the second name, is clearly the River Taw (Ekwall 1928, 394; Thomas 1966a, 87; Rivet & Smith 1979, 470). *Nemetostatio is probably the fort at North Tawton,which is in an area where a group of modern names containing the elements Nymet and Nemet are found (Rivet & Smith 1979, 425).The identification of *Fl Conio with Ptolemy’s Κενίωνος ποταμοῦ ἐκβολαί (Geography II.3,3) made by Rivet & Smith (1979, 306) must therefore be questioned as the general progression seems to be from north-east to southwest.It may refer the River Torridge, although this is a Celtic name, derived by Ekwall (1928, 414) from a Brittonic *Torric-, ‘violent, rough’.*Glano should therefore be somewhere in north Devon,perhaps in the vicinity of Barnstaple. Tamaris,

the Ταμάρη of Ptolemy (II.3,13), is a site on the River Tamar (Ekwall 1928, 389), perhaps at the crossing at Launceston, not the river itself, as the name recurs in the list of river-names (10748). *Durocornouio and <Pilais>
Britannia in the Ravenna Cosmography: a reassessment K J Fitzpatrick-Matthews
15

cannot now be identified. Charles Thomas (1966a, 87) originally identified the former with The Rumps, a pre-Roman defended enclosure.

More recently, he suggested that it might be Tintagel, the site of an important sub-Roman trading settlement, although its Romano-British status is not clear (Harry & Morris 1997, 121). <Vernilis> may be the same as Ptolemy’s Οὐολίβα (Geography II.3,13), perhaps near Liskeard (Strang 1997, 30); the correct RomanoBritish form may have been *Verleua. The Cosmographer’s form would have arisen by way of a transposition of -l- and -u-, the latter being miscopied as -n-.
The next name must be for *Fl Deruentione, the River Dart, so the Cosmographer’s eye may have moved from travelling along the spine of Cornwall, following the poorly known road along the centre of the peninsula, and he has possibly now turned his attention to the road south from Exeter, closer to the south Devon coast. Deuionisso Statio and *Deruentio Statio (which are wrongly divided in the text) are probably unlocated Roman government establishments, perhaps tax offices.



The latter may have lain in the Dart valley  , Dart being Brittonic  *Deruentiu: Ekwall 1928, 114), perhaps at Buckfastleigh or Totnes, and the former perhaps near Newton Abbot or elsewhere on the River Teign.The next name, Duriarno, is probably not the same as Durnouaria (Dorchester),as suggested by Rivet & Smith (1979, 345) following Horsley (1732, 490),since it is probably not corrupt (compare the Arnodurum quoted by Williams (Richmond & Crawford 1949, 32),which shows the more usual ‘continental’ ordering of elements).Instead,it may be the name of a site in the vicinity of Plymouth where the inhumation cemetery at Mount Batten and a sequence of coins attest a settlement of some importance (Thomas 1966a, 86).

Uxelis is too far west to be the same as Ptolemy’s Οὔξελλα (II.3, 13), which must be on the River Parrett, his Οὐεξάλλα εἴσχυσις (II.3,2), and may be a site or river in Cornwall, perhaps the Fowey or the Fal, unless it is an example of a name written to the west of its symbol on the map source. If this is the case, then it may have been near Barnstaple (Strang 1997, 30). Group 2: the south Devon and Cornish coast Melamoni Sidford ? 1062 = 1064/1069/10613
Scadumnamorum Exeter 1062
Termonin ? 1063
Mesteuia Land’s End 1063 = 1061
The mention of Moridunum, Sidford ?, for the first time indicates a change of direction, and there are now hints of an ordering of names with a general progression from east to west. The -l- for -r- in Moridunum is also found in the next section; it may be that the name was very difficult to read in the Cosmographer’s source. It is unlikely to have occurred as a result of misreading two separate documents, further evidence for the essential unity of the Cosmographer’s sources. The unlocated *Terminum would have been somewhere between Exeter and Land’s End, an admittedly imprecise location. The River Gowy in Cheshire was formerly known as the aqua de Tervin (‘water of Tarvin’) in 1209, the name deriving from the Latin terminus, ‘boundary’, via Welsh Terfyn (Dodgson 1970, 26), which has been retained by a large parish and village. Although the origin of the latter name is generally sought in the post-Roman politics of the region (Bu’Lock 1972, 24), it is probable that the River Gowy was the eastern boundary of the prata legionis of the fortress at Chester. Could a similar origin be suggested for this name, at the western boundary of the prata legionis of the early fortress at Exeter or the territorium of the later capital of the Civitas Dumnoniorum?


16

Group 3:

Somerset ? Milidunum Sidford ? 1064=1062/1069/10619
Apaunaris Bath ? 1064
Masona Camerton? 1065
Alouergium Shepton Mallett 1065
The Cosmographer returns to Moridunum, with the same peculiar -l- for -r- as in the previous group, and a similarly logical ordering of names (this time jumping north-eastward and then working back to the starting-point). Rivet & Smith (1979, 255) identify Apaunaris with Aquae Sulis, Bath, perhaps correctly, so the two remaining names may relate to sites between Bath and Sidford.

<Masona> suggests a name derived from that of a river, although which cannot now be ascertained; it perhaps refers to the small town at Camerton.The name is corrupt. Alobergium should be in a hilly location, probably near the Mendip Hills at Shepton Mallett, where parts of a Romano-British small town have recently been identified.


Neolithic, Beaker and “ Food Vessel : sherds from Rowberrow Cavern will be described later, were near it.With the pottery was a service of Hint implements wrought by shallow scaling, including part of a polished tool and barbed stone arrowheads.

But undoubtedly the important feature of the industry here found was the presence of , pygmy flints  though not quite the same as the earlier
pygmies from King Arthur’s Cave they are probably derived from the Arthursian industry.

They suggest that the indwellers in Rowberrow Cavern were the descendants of men who dwelt in Britain in y. lardenoisian times.

They in turn perhaps were derived from the
cave men of Old Stone Age.
Cheddar, has also produced an association of round
bottomed Neolithic pottery, sherds of Beaker-ware, finely scaled flint implements and small fragments of a polished axe.

Soldier’s Hole in Cheddar Gorge has so far given us a set of stone implements including a polished axe and a chipped stone spear-head.
The most significant Neolithic site m this district was found by the Somerset Archaeological Society under an overhanging rock in. Chelm’s Combe, Cheddar, where round bottomed bowls and the bones of the men who used them had survived. One of the bowls is of a Spanish type.

The Neolithic men who dwelt in these seven caves had domestic beasts, but they hunted freely to augment their food stocks.
Neolithic Man.
The description of the Palaeolithic man of Aveline’s Hole and Gough’s Cave could be used for the men from the Gloucestershire and Somersetshire long barrows and from Chelm’s Combe without much amending.

Perhaps the main difference is that the long-barrow men had narrower faces than the cave men.Judging by the skeletons we have there is no reason to suppose that the long-barrow men were other than the descendants of the cave men.

But this is a theory that needs testing by research in transitional stations.
A skull was taken from Bisley long-barrow upon which the dangerous and delicate surgical operation of trepanning had been successfully performed. 
It has been asserted that the Megalithic culture was carried across Europe by traders from the Near East who were in quest of gold, amber and pearls. They were dark broad-heads, and are known as Prospectors. Professor Fleure has discovered in Pembroke and South Cardigan, where Megaliths are numerous, numbers of men who may be their descendants.

Never the less, no oriental Neolithic objects have appeared in the West of England and, moreover, the skeletons from the long-barrows all appear to belong to the distinctive native type.
At this period it is probable that work began on the gold bearing gravel of Wicklow.

For centuries this was the most important gold-field in Europe and this may account for the enormous number of flint axes and early bronze implements found in Ireland. But there are few signs of the gold trade in these parts. >
Trade there was:

no one can walk across a ploughed field on Mendip without discovering a flint implement or flake.

No flint is found naturally in the district, therefore, the presence of such enormous quantities on the land is testimony of settled conditions and an interchange of commodities in the New Stone and Bronze Ages.
Die Megalithie stage certainly lasted into the early Bronze Age;

the occurrence of Beaker-ware with Neolithic pottery is good evidence of that.

Stonehenge itself was raised after the close of the New Stone Age. It is now well-known that the inner circle of blue stones was brought thence from Pembrokeshire. Perhaps they were ferried across the Severn estuary to Uphill or Worlehury and toiled along Mendip to the Wiltshire Downs by devout herdsmen.
Merlin s Cave, Symond's Vat.

 the Ravenna Cosmography identifies a major regional Roman-era settlement  as 

Nemetostatio 

in central Dumnonia  identified with North Tawton , Devon .

which would translate from Latin as

  * The Outpost of the Sacred Grove *

 The south-west

The first section of the Ravenna Cosmography to deal with Britain, covering 10546 to 1065, is obscure but nevertheless generally recognised as dealing with south-western England . Why it should have been separated out by the Cosmographer is not at all clear.

 Rivet and Smith (1979, 197) see it as evidence for a special source covering this area in greater detail than the rest of Britain.

This does not seem a necessary hypothesis for reasons to be given.

Indeed, the words that introduce the next section, ‘Again, next to the aforementioned civitas Isca Dumnoniorum’ iterum iuxta superscriptam ciuitatem scadumnamorum , strongly hint that the Cosmographer is looking at the same map as he used as a source for this section.

We will see many instances of the Cosmographer duplicating names throughout his text, the most startling being *Moridunum* , Sidford, which is repeated no less than four times. However, they are not noticeably more common in this section than in those that follow. Had he employed a special and separate source for the south-west, it is difficult to see how he would have integrated the information he derived from it with that he derived from his main source without making many more such duplications. We would on this hypothesis also expect the following long section which covers the province or diocese of Britannia to contain a few names relating to the south-western peninsula which the Cosmographer had not noticed as duplications: we do not find them.

Arguments e silentio are never strong; more telling are the duplications within this section that cannot be the result of taking names from two different sources.

 For instance, the name *Antiuesteum* appears twice, at , in both cases with virtually the same truncation.

 This truncation may well have occurred if the first three or four letters of the name were written ‘in the sea’ on the Cosmographer’s postulated map source . The same error of reading is extremely unlikely to have occurred as a result of using two separate source documents.

There are thus no compelling reasons to believe that the Cosmographer was using a separate and fuller source for the south-west of Britain than for the remainder of the island. True enough, the density of names in the peninsula is high, but it is also high in Cumbria  and between the Roman walls . The contrast is not so much with a low density in the remainder of the province, but with specific areas, such as Wales and East Anglia, very poorly represented.

This does not solve the problem of why the Cosmographer should have seen Isca Dumnoniorum, Exeter, as a point at which to insert a break in his listing. The Peutinger Table may offer a clue: although Britain is severely truncated, with only East Anglia and Kent appearing on the surviving copy, Moridunum and Isca Dumnoniorum are also shown without any intervening south-coast places.

It is possible that Isca Dumnoniorum was depicted as prominent in some way, perhaps isolated on a promontory or, as seems more likely, as the gateway to .

 In this way the Cosmographer might have decided to break his text at a point which appeared dictated by the geography of the region. He does so further north, where his listing of the Antonine Wall forts occurs ‘where that same Britain is seen to be narrowest from sea to sea’ ubi et ipsa britania plus angustissima de oceano in oceanum esse dinoscitur .

Although this was not the primary reason for inserting a break at this latter point, the Cosmographer was clearly sensitive to the depicted shape of the island.


 

14

 

On the other hand, we should perhaps take into account the curious fact that the Civitas Dumnoniorum (basically the Cornish peninsula west of Exeter) appears to have been a part of Britain virtually unaffected by those changes to élite behaviour usually termed ‘romanisation’. Is it possible that much of it lay outside provincial or diocesan control and that some kind of border was depicted on the Cosmographer’s map source as separating the south-western peninsula from the rest of Britain? In that case, Isca Dumnoniorum may have been prominent as a point of contact between the wilds of the far south-west and the more ‘civilised’ Durotriges (or Durotrages, following RIB 1673: the form of the name is very uncertain according to Rivet & Smith 1979, 352) to the east. Group 1: the Cornish Peninsula V ¶31 in qua britania plurimas fuisse ciuitates et castra legimus ex quibus aliquantas designare uolumus id est:

 Giano Barnstaple  10546

 Eltabo River Taw 10546

 Elconio River Torridge ? 10547

Nemestotatio North Tawton 10547

Tamaris Launceston ? 

 Puro coronauis ? 10548

 Pilais ? 10549

 Vernilis Liskeard ? 10549

 Ardua rauenatone River Dart 10550

 Deuionisso Statio ? 10551

 deuentia steno Buckfastleigh / Totnes ? 10551/10552

 Duriarno Plymouth  10552

 Vxelis Barnstaple ? 1061

 Verteuia Land’s End 1061 = 1069

This group appears to take us on a general perambulation of the Cornish Peninsula and adjacent area

 * Taua, the second name, is clearly the River Taw .

 *Nemetostatio is probably the fort at North Tawton, which is in an area where a group of modern names containing the elements Nymet and Nemet are found .

 The identification of *Conio* with Ptolemy’s  must therefore be questioned as the general progression seems to be from north-east to southwest.

 It may refer the River Torridge, although this is a Celtic name, derived from a Brittonic *Torric-, ‘violent, rough’.

 *Glano* should therefore be somewhere in north Devon, perhaps in the vicinity of Barnstaple.

 Tamaris, this a site on the River Tamar , perhaps at the crossing at Launceston , not the river itself , as the name recurs in the list of river-names . *Durocornouio* and *Pilais*

Britannia in the Ravenna Cosmography: a reassessment K J Fitzpatrick-Matthews

15

 

cannot now be identified. Charles Thomas (1966a, 87) originally identified the former with The Rumps, a pre-Roman defended enclosure.

 More recently, he suggested that it might be Tintagel, the site of an important sub-Roman trading settlement, although its Romano-British status is not clear . *Vernilis* may be the , perhaps near Liskeard ; the correct RomanoBritish form may have been *Verleua.

The Cosmographer’s form would have arisen by way of a transposition of -l- and -u-, the latter being miscopied as -n-.

The next name must be for * Deruentione, the River Dart, so the Cosmographer’s eye may have moved from travelling along the spine of Cornwall, following the poorly known road along the centre of the peninsula, and he has possibly now turned his attention to the road south from Exeter, closer to the south Devon coast.

 Deuionisso Statio and *Deruentio Statio (which are wrongly divided in the text) are probably unlocated Roman government establishments, perhaps tax offices. The latter may have lain in the Dart valley (Dart being Brittonic *Deruentiu: Ekwall 1928, 114), perhaps at Buckfastleigh or Totnes, and the former perhaps near Newton Abbot or elsewhere on the River Teign. The next name, Duriarno, is probably not the same as Durnouaria (Dorchester), as suggested by Rivet & Smith (1979, 345) following Horsley (1732, 490), since it is probably not corrupt (compare the Arnodurum quoted by Williams (Richmond & Crawford 1949, 32), which shows the more usual ‘continental’ ordering of elements). Instead, it may be the name of a site in the vicinity of Plymouth where the inhumation cemetery at Mount Batten and a sequence of coins attest a settlement of some importance (Thomas 1966a, 86). Uxelis is too far west to be the same as Ptolemy’s Οὔξελλα (II.3, 13), which must be on the River Parrett, his Οὐεξάλλα εἴσχυσις (II.3,2), and may be a site or river in Cornwall, perhaps the Fowey or the Fal, unless it is an example of a name written to the west of its symbol on the map source. If this is the case, then it may have been near Barnstaple (Strang 1997, 30). Group 2: the south Devon and Cornish coast  Melamoni Sidford ? 1062 = 1064/1069/10613 Scadumnamorum Exeter , Termonin    Mesteuia - Land’s End

The mention of Moridunum, Sidford , for the first time indicates a change of direction, and there are now hints of an ordering of names with a general progression from east to west. The -l- for -r- in Moridunum is also found in the next section; it may be that the name was very difficult to read in the Cosmographer’s source. It is unlikely to have occurred as a result of misreading two separate documents, further evidence for the essential unity of the Cosmographer’s sources. The unlocated *Terminum would have been somewhere between Exeter and Land’s End, an admittedly imprecise location. The River Gowy in Cheshire was formerly known as the aqua de Tervin (‘water of Tarvin’) in 1209, the name deriving from the Latin terminus, ‘boundary’, via Welsh Terfyn (Dodgson 1970, 26), which has been retained by a large parish and village. Although the origin of the latter name is generally sought in the post-Roman politics of the region (Bu’Lock 1972, 24), it is probable that the River Gowy was the eastern boundary of the prata legionis of the fortress at Chester. Could a similar origin be suggested for this name, at the western boundary of the prata legionis of the early fortress at Exeter or the territorium of the later capital of the CivitasDumnoniorum?


 Somerset  Milidunum Sidford 

Apaunaris Bath 

 Masona Camerton? 1065

 Alouergium Shepton Mallett 1065

The Cosmographer returns to Moridunum, with the same peculiar -l- for -r- as in the previous group, and a similarly logical ordering of names this time jumping north-eastward and then working back to the starting-point identify Apaunaris with Aquae Sulis, Bath, perhaps correctly, so the two remaining names may relate to sites between Bath and Sidford.

<Masona> suggests a name derived from that of a river, although which cannot now be ascertained; it perhaps refers to the small town at Camerton. The name is corrupt. *Alobergium should be in a hilly location, probably near the Mendip Hills at Shepton Mallett, where parts of a Romano-British small town have recently been identified.

for the field inwhich stands Castle Dore was called Carhurles meaning 'Gorlas's fortress'.


It therefore seems that the chieftain could have preceded King Mark of the Tristan saga at this earthwork which is known to have been re-occupied in Gorlas's time having been abandoned during the Roman period. 
Assuming that the traditional link between

the Arthurian and Tristan sagas could be factual and that King Mark DID succeed GORLAS and hold this southern territory by the sixth century,

HISTORY
Polpenrith , alias Polpere , and Polwevorel Creeks , running up towards Constantine Church ; and a mile fartherdown , Chielow , aliasCalmansake Creek , This haven, within a mile of its mouth, is secure enough for ships of 200 ton ; and at its passage into the sea, is abouta mile wide.This River rises in the highest Northern part of Wendron parish , whence, in about five miles, it reaches the borough ofHelston about a mile below which it forms a Lake , called the Lo Pool; the River giving rise to the Lake , and the Lake , as the mostremarkable part of the Water , giving name to the River. Four brooks give rise to this River ; and uniting at Relubbas from a Western Course, turn to the North , and in three miles reach St. Erth , alias St. Ercy Bridge, of three stone Arches, and a raised Gaucey well walledon each side, reaching cross the valley . The Bridge has been built somewhat more than 400 years, before which time there was a ferryhere, and ships of great burden came up to it.  The valley, above bridge, has been much raised by the sands and earth, washed down from the hills and mines ; and the haven below has suffered the same misfortune, from the sands of the Northern lea ; lb that lighters only come within a bow -lh ot oi the bridge ; and that with the tide of fiood, which at fpring tides
flows near a mile above the bridge.

Here the land of Cornwall, is at it’s narroweft dimenfion ; fo that from the full fca mark o f Hcyl on the North Sea, to the full Sea-mark at Marazion in Mount's
Bay on the South Sea, the diftance is but three miles.

From St. Erth the H c y l b ean d ircflly N o rth , fpreading an area of fand, of half a mile wide at a medium , and two miles long, but navigable
only in the chancl of the River, which admits fm all ships a mile inwards from the fca under the village of Lannant.

Nea r it’s mouth the Hcyl is joined by a brook from the Enft, which , under the Parochial Church of Philac, makes a branch of this haven for fhips o f 100 tons.

The Sea has not only alm oft filled this fm all harbour w ith fand, bur form s a bar alio at it's mouth, over which fhips of 80 and 100 ton only can come in at the height of a fpring
tide ; and the bed o f the whole is lo railed, that it admits the tide in it only fix hours in twelve ; fo that whereas, in harbours openn to
the fca, the tide flow s fix hours, and ebbs fix hours : here ’tis
• KilmJiuch, the Monti
other wife ;

in which King Arthur received his mortal wound : thus recorded by the Poet Naturam Cambela fontis Mutatam stupet este fui, transcendit in undas Sanguineus torrens ripas, et ducit in aequor Corpora caesorum ; plures natare videres,  Et petere auxilium quos undis vita reliquit.”


The other, a bloody battle, fought betwixt the Cornish , and the West Saxons of Devonshire , in the year 824 ’, in which many thousands fell on each side, and the victory remained uncertain. Hence, after a run of about 12 miles, it becomes navigable for sand barges at Parbrok ; and at Eglofhel  , receives a plentiful addition to it’s stream, from the River Laine A mile farther down, this River reaches the greatest bridge in this county, called Wadebridge : about the year 1460 there was a ferry here whilst the tide was in, and a very dangerous ford when the tide was retired , which moved the then Vicar of Egloshel, one Mr. Lovebon, with great industry and public spirit, to undertake this bridge ; a great and useful, but tedious work. Besides the expence, fo disproportioned to his circumftances, in the course of the work, there arose fuch difficulties, as might have baffled a more mechanical age than that in which he lived : the ground, for the foundation of some of the piers, proved so swampy, that after repeated efforts another way, they were forced at last to build on wool-packs ; however, it fhould never be forgotten, that by his follicitations, and the liberal contributions of others, but chiefly by his own perfeverance, and the blessings of providence, he lived to accomplish the bridge as it now stands, with seventeen fair and uniform arches, reaching quite cross the valley, to the great safety of travellers, and the credit of his country. Hither come up small barks of 40 and 60 ton, and supply the country with coal from Wales, with flat, which rifes about ten miles off, lime, timber, and groceries from Bristol.A mile farther down the Alan makes two small Creeks on the East, in return for a brook or two which it receives; then keeping to the North-Weft, and supplying two Creeks on the Western bank which run up into St. Illy, and little Petrock pariflies, in a mile more it reaches the ancient town of Petrockstow, alias Padstow, where there is a pier, and some


 In Camden, page 23. and the Elaine, (Hinnulus) in Radnorshire, and


1 See Saxon chronicle. Montgomery Ihife, &c. probably this River Lain,


m That is, the Church on the River. had the name of Elaine from the fwiftnefs of


" Some Rivers among the British, says Lhuyd it’s course. in Baxter’s glossary, page 273, take their names 0 Leland, Vol. II. page 82. ; as the Caru (Cervus) in Shropfhire,

NATURAL HISTORY
Polpenrith, alias Polpere, and Polwevorel Creeks, running up towards Constantine Church ; and a mile fartherdown , Chielow , alias Calmanfake Creek 

This haven, within a mile of it s mouth, is fccurc enough for fhips of 200 ton ; and at its paflage into the lea, is about a mile wide.
This River riles in the higheft Northern part of Wendron parifh , whence, in about five miles, it reaches the borough of IIlfton  about a mile below which it forms a Lake , called the Lo Pool; the River giving rise to the Lake , and the Lake , as the moft remarkable part of the Water, giving name to the River *. Four brooks give rise to this River ; and uniting at Relubbas from a Westerly Course, turn to the North , and in three miles reach St. Erth , alias St. Ercy Bridge, of three ftonc Arches, and a raifed Giulcywell walled on each fide, reaching crossthe valley. The Bridge has been built fom cw hat more than 400 years , beforce which time there was a ferry here, and Ships of great burden came up to it. The valley, above bridge, has been much raised by the sand and earth, washed down from the hills and mines ; and the haven below has fullered the fame misfortune, from the sands of the Northern lea ; so that lighters only come within a bow-lhotoi the bridge ; and that with the tide of fiood, which at spring tides flows near a mile above the bridge.

Here the land of Cornwall, is at it’s narrowest dimension ;so that from the full fca mark of Hcylon the North Sea, to the full Sea-mark at Marazion in Mount's
Bay on the South Sea, the distance is but three miles.

From St. Erth the Heyl bean dircflly North , spreading an area of sand, of half a mile wide at a medium , and two miles long, but navigable only in the chancl of the River, which admits fm all Ships a mile inwards from the fca under the village of Lannant.Near it’s mouth the Hcyl is joined by a brook from the East, which , under the Parochial Church of Philac, makes a branch of this haven for ships o f 100 tons.

The Sea has not only alm oft filled this small harbour withsand, bur forms a bar alio at it's mouth, over which fhips of 80 and 100 ton only can come in at the height of a spring
tide ; and the bed o f the whole is lo railed, that it adm its the tide in it only six hours in twelve ; so that whereas, in harbours open to the sea, the tide flows six hours, and ebbs six hours : 


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shall take this opportunity of mentioning incidentally the other minerals of Great Britain, taken notice of by the antients, either as articles of trade or matters of curiosity.

Tin was not only the first metal in these islands which we read of; but also the greatest object of commerce; and which originally led to the discovery of Great Britain by the Romans.

The mercantile Phoenicians traded to the Scilly islands,
the Cassiterides, or land of tin, from the port of Cadiz, four hundred years before Christ. The Romans, for a considerable time, could not discover the place from whence the former procured
the precious metal. They attempted to detect the trade, by following the course of a Phoenician vessel; but the master, faithful to the interest of his country, voluntarily run his ship ashore in another place; preferring the loss of all, rather than sillier n. foreign nation to become partakers of so profitable a secret. The public immediately compensated Iris loss out of its treasury.

This did but make the Romans more eager for the discovery; and after many trials they succeeded. Publius Crassus (father of Marcus Crassus the Triumvir) who was praetor, and governed Spain for several
years, landed in the Cassiterides, and found the report of their riches verified.
As soon as the Romans made a conquest of the country, they formed in the tin province camps and roads, still visible; and left behind vases, urns,

sepulchres, and money, that exhibit daily proofs of their having been a stationary people in Those parts

”1; and that Dunmonium extended even to the Belerian promontory, or the Land’s-end;

InEarly Irish literature aBríatharogam("word ogham", plural Bríatharogaim) is a two wordkenningwhich explains the meanings of the names of the letters of theOghamalphabet. Three variant lists of bríatharogaim or 'word-oghams' have been preserved, dating to theOld Irishperiod. They are as follows:

Bríatharogam Morainn mac Moín

Bríatharogam Maic ind Óc

Bríatharogam Con Culainn

The first two of these are attested from all three surviving copies of theOgam Tract, while the "Cú Chulainn" version is not in theBook of Ballymoteand only known from 16th-and 17th-century manuscripts. TheAuraicept na n-Écesor 'Scholars' Primer' reports and interprets the Bríatharogam Morainn mac Moín.

Later Medieval scholars believed that all of the letter names were those of trees, and attempted to explain the bríatharogaim in that light. However, modern scholarship has shown that only eight at most of the letter names are those of trees, and that the word-oghams or kennings themselves support this. The kennings as edited (in normalized Old Irish) and translated by McManus (1988) are as follows:

Letter Meaning Bríatharogam Morainn mac Moín Bríatharogam Maic ind Óc Bríatharogam Con Culainn

ᚁBBeithe'Birch' féochos foltchain "withered foot with fine hair" glaisem cnis "greyest of skin" maise malach "beauty of the eyebrow"

ᚂLLuis'Flame' or 'Herb' lí súla
"lustre of the eye" carae cethrae
"friend of cattle" lúth cethrae
"sustenance of cattle"

ᚃ FFern'Alder' airenach fían
"vanguard of warriors" comét lachta
"milk container" dín cridi
"protection of the heart"

ᚄ SSail'Willow' lí ambi
"pallor of a lifeless one" lúth bech
"sustenance of bees" tosach mela
"beginning of honey"

NNin'Branch-fork' costud síde "establishing of peace" bág ban "boast of women" bág maise "boast of beauty"

ᚆ HÚath'Fear' condál cúan
"assembly of packs of hounds" bánad gnúise
"blanching of faces" ansam aidche
"most difficult at night"

ᚇ DDair'Oak' ardam dosae
"highest tree" grés soír
"handicraft of a craftsman" slechtam soíre
"most carved of craftsmanship"

ᚈTTinne'Iron Bar' trian roith"one of three parts of a wheel" smiur gúaile"marrow of (char)coal" trian n-airm"one of three parts of a weapon"

ᚉ CColl'Hazel' caíniu fedaib
"fairest tree" carae blóesc
"friend of nutshells" milsem fedo
"sweetest tree"

ᚊQCert'Bush' or 'Rag' clithar baiscill
"shelter of a [lunatic?]" bríg anduini
"substance of an insignificant person" dígu fethail
"dregs of clothing"

ᚋ MMuin'Neck', 'Ruse/Trick' or 'Love;' How about 'breath?' tressam fedmae
"strongest in exertion" árusc n-airlig
"proverb of slaughter" conar gotha
"path of the voice"

ᚌ GGort'Field' milsiu féraib|
"sweetest grass" ined erc
"suitable place for cows" sásad ile
"sating of multitudes"

ᚍ GGGétal'Slaying' lúth lego
"sustenance of a leech" étiud midach
"raiment of physicians" tosach n-échto
"beginning of slaying"

ᚎZStraif'Sulphur'tressam rúamnai
"strongest reddening (dye)" mórad rún
"increase of secrets" saigid nél
"seeking of clouds"

ᚏ RRuis'Red' tindem rucci
"most intense blushing" rúamnae drech
"reddening of faces" bruth fergae
"glow of anger"

ᚐ AAilm'Pine'? ardam íachta
"loudest groan" tosach frecrai
"beginning of an answer" tosach garmae
"beginning of calling"

ᚑ OOnn'Ash-tree' congnaid ech
"wounder of horses" féthem soíre
"smoothest of craftsmanship" lúth fían
"[equipment] of warrior bands"

ᚒ UÚr'Earth' úaraib adbaib
"in cold dwellings" sílad cland
"propagation of plants" forbbaid ambí
"shroud of a lifeless one"

ᚓ EEdadUnknown érgnaid fid
"discerning tree" commaín carat
"exchange of friends" bráthair bethi (?)
"brother of birch" (?)

IIdad'Yew-tree'? sinem fedo "oldest tree" caínem sen "fairest of the ancients" lúth lobair (?) "energy of an infirm person" (?)


EAÉbadUnknown snámchaín feda  "fair-swimming letter" cosc lobair "[admonishing?] of an infirm person" caínem éco "fairest fish"

ᚖ OIÓir'Gold' sruithem aicde
"most venerable substance" lí crotha
"splendour of form"

ᚗ UIUillenn'Elbow' túthmar fid
"fragrant tree" cubat oll
"great elbow/cubit"

ᚘ IOIphín'Spine/thorn'? milsem fedo
"sweetest tree" amram mlais
"most wonderful taste"

ᚙ AEEmancholl'Twin-of-hazel' lúad sáethaig
"groan of a sick person" mol galraig
"groan of a sick person"

Intriguingly , the Ravenna Cosmography identifies a major regional Roman-era settlement as

Nemetostatio in central Dumnonia

identified with North Tawton, Devon which would translate from Latin as

'The Outpost of the Sacred Grove"

Britannia in the Ravenna Cosmography:  a reassessment K J Fitzpatrick-Matthews


 

The south-west

The first section of the Ravenna Cosmography to deal with Britain, covering 10546 to 1065, is obscure but nevertheless generally recognised as dealing with south-western England

(Richmond & Crawford 1949, .

Why it should have been separated out by the Cosmographer is not at all clear.

 see it as evidence for a special source covering this area in greater detail than the rest of Britain.  This does not seem a necessary hypothesis for reasons to be given below . Indeed, the words that introduce the next section , ‘Again, next to the aforementioned  civitas Isca Dumnoniorum’ iterum iuxta superscriptam ciuitatem iscadumnamorum , strongly hint that the Cosmographer is looking at the same map as he used as a source for this section . We will see many instances of the Cosmographer duplicating names throughout his text , the most startling being *Moridunum , Sidford ? , which is repeated no less than four times. However, they are not noticeably more common in this section than in those that follow. Had he employed a special and separate source for the south-west, it is difficult to see how he would have integrated the information he derived from it with that he derived from his main source without making many more such duplications. We would on this hypothesis also expect the following long section which covers the province or diocese of Britannia to contain a few names relating to the south-western peninsula which the Cosmographer had not noticed as duplications: we do not find them. Arguments e silentio are never strong; more telling are the duplications within this section that cannot be the result of taking names from two different sources. For instance, the name *(Anti)uesteum appears twice, at 1061 and 1063, in both cases with virtually the same truncation. This truncation may well have occurred if the first three or four letters of the name were written ‘in the sea’ on the Cosmographer’s postulated map source (Rivet &Smith 1979, 198). The same error of reading is extremely unlikely to have occurred as a result of using two separate source documents.

There are thus no compelling reasons to believe that the Cosmographer was using a separate and fuller source for the south-west of Britain than for the remainder of the island. True enough, the density of names in the peninsula is high, but it is also high in Cumbria (1071 to 1076 and 10710 to 10711) and between the Roman walls (10730 to 10747). The contrast is not so much with a low density in the remainder of the province, but with specific areas, such as Wales and East Anglia, very poorly represented.

This does not solve the problem of why the Cosmographer should have seen Isca Dumnoniorum, Exeter, as a point at which to insert a break in his listing. The Peutinger Table may offer a clue: although Britain is severely truncated, with only East Anglia and Kent appearing on the surviving copy, Moridunum and Isca Dumnoniorum are also shown without any intervening south-coast places. It is possible that Isca Dumnoniorum was depicted as prominent in some way, perhaps isolated on a promontory or, as seems more likely, as the gateway to a peninsula (as suggested by Rivet & Smith 1979, 200). In this way the Cosmographer might have decided to break his text at a point which appeared dictated by the geography of the region. He does so further north, where his listing of the Antonine Wall forts occurs ‘where that same Britain is seen to be narrowest from sea to sea’ (ubi et ipsa britania plus angustissima de oceano in oceanum esse dinoscitur 10750 to 10751). Although this was not the primary reason for inserting a break at this latter point, the Cosmographer was clearly sensitive to the depicted shape of the island.


 

On the other hand, we should perhaps take into account the curious fact that the Civitas Dumnoniorum  , basically the Cornish peninsula west of Exeter) appears to have been a part of Britain virtually unaffected by those changes to élite behaviour usually termed ‘romanisation’. Is it possible that much of it lay outside provincial or diocesan control and that some kind of border was depicted on the Cosmographer’s map source as separating the south-western peninsula from the rest of Britain? In that case, Isca Dumnoniorum may have been prominent as a point of contact between the wilds of the far south-west and the more ‘civilised’ Durotriges (or Durotrages, following RIB 1673: the form of the name is very uncertain according to Rivet & Smith 1979, 352) to the east. Group 1: the Cornish Peninsula V ¶31 in qua britania plurimas fuisse ciuitates et castra legimus ex quibus aliquantas designare uolumus id est:

 

Giano Barnstaple ? 10546

 

Eltabo River Taw 10546


 Elconio River Torridge ? 10547


Nemetotatio North Tawton 10547


 Tamaris Launceston ? 10548


 Puro coronauis ? 10548


 Pilais ? 10549


 Vernilis Liskeard ? 10549


 Ardua rauenatone River Dart 10550


 Deuionisso Statio ? 10551


 deuentia steno Buckfastleigh / Totnes ? 10551/10552


Duriarno Plymouth  10552


 Vxelis Barnstaple ? 1061

 

Verteuia Land’s End 1061 = 1069


This group appears to take us on a general perambulation of the Cornish Peninsula and adjacent area. *Fl Taua, the second name, is clearly the River Taw (Ekwall 1928, 394; Thomas 1966a, 87; Rivet & Smith 1979, 470). *Nemetostatio is probably the fort at North Tawton, which is in an area where a group of modern names containing the elements Nymet and Nemet are found (Rivet & Smith 1979, 425). The identification of *Fl Conio with Ptolemy’s Κενίωνος ποταμοῦ ἐκβολαί (Geography II.3,3) made by Rivet & Smith (1979, 306) must therefore be questioned as the general progression seems to be from north-east to southwest. It may refer the River Torridge, although this is a Celtic name, derived by Ekwall (1928, 414) from a Brittonic *Torric-, ‘violent, rough’. *Glano should therefore be somewhere in north Devon, perhaps in the vicinity of Barnstaple. Tamaris, the Ταμάρη of Ptolemy (II.3,13), is a site on the River Tamar (Ekwall 1928, 389), perhaps at the crossing at Launceston, not the river itself, as the name recurs in the list of river-names (10748). *Durocornouio and Pilais,

Britannia in the Ravenna Cosmography: a reassessment K J Fitzpatrick-Matthews

If the roman averice was  for goods then shoud I consider minerals and that water transport was essential ,then I could consider two Iscas , Hoazme and Laira .

Tamar Lyhner Plym  For one the recnt calstock roman fort ,where does that fit in with this old literature hmmm ,another real consideration would be the waterways bear now no resemblance to "2000 yrs ago, cannot now be identified. Charles Thomas originally identified the former with The Rumps, a pre-Roman defended enclosure. More recently, he suggested that it might be Tintagel, the site of an important sub-Roman trading settlement, although its Romano-British status is not clear (Harry & Morris 1997, 121). <Vernilis> may be the same as Ptolemy’s Οὐολίβα (Geography II.3,13), perhaps near Liskeard (Strang 1997, 30); the correct RomanoBritish form may have been *Verleua. The Cosmographer’s form would have arisen by way of a transposition of -l- and -u-, the latter being miscopied as -n-.

The next name must be for *Fl Deruentione, the River Dart, so the Cosmographer’s eye may have moved from travelling along the spine of Cornwall, following the poorly known road along the centre of the peninsula, and he has possibly now turned his attention to the road south from Exeter, closer to the south Devon coast. Deuionisso Statio and *Deruentio Statio (which are wrongly divided in the text) are probably unlocated Roman government establishments, perhaps tax offices. The latter may have lain in the Dart valley (Dart being Brittonic *Deruentiu: Ekwall 1928, 114), perhaps at Buckfastleigh or Totnes, and the former perhaps near Newton Abbot or elsewhere on the River Teign. The next name, Duriarno, is probably not the same as Durnouaria (Dorchester), as suggested by Rivet & Smith (1979, 345) following Horsley (1732, 490), since it is probably not corrupt (compare the Arnodurum quoted by Williams (Richmond & Crawford 1949, 32), which shows the more usual ‘continental’ ordering of elements). Instead, it may be the name of a site in the vicinity of Plymouth where the inhumation cemetery at Mount Batten and a sequence of coins attest a settlement of some importance (Thomas 1966a, 86). Uxelis is too far west to be the same as Ptolemy’s Οὔξελλα (II.3, 13), which must be on the River Parrett, his Οὐεξάλλα εἴσχυσις (II.3,2), and may be a site or river in Cornwall, perhaps the Fowey or the Fal, unless it is an example of a name written to the west of its symbol on the map source. If this is the case, then it may have been near Barnstaple (Strang 1997, 30). Group 2: the south Devon and Cornish coast  Melamoni Sidford ? 1062 = 1064/1069/10613

 Scadumnamorum Exeter 1062

 Termonin ? 1063

 Mesteuia Land’s End 1063 = 1061

The mention of Moridunum, Sidford ?, for the first time indicates a change of direction, and there are now hints of an ordering of names with a general progression from east to west. The -l- for -r- in Moridunum is also found in the next section; it may be that the name was very difficult to read in the Cosmographer’s source. It is unlikely to have occurred as a result of misreading two separate documents, further evidence for the essential unity of the Cosmographer’s sources. The unlocated *Terminum would have been somewhere between Exeter and Land’s End, an admittedly imprecise location. The River Gowy in Cheshire was formerly known as the aqua de Tervin (‘water of Tarvin’) in 1209, the name deriving from the Latin terminus, ‘boundary’, via Welsh Terfyn (Dodgson 1970, 26), which has been retained by a large parish and village. Although the origin of the latter name is generally sought in the post-Roman politics of the region (Bu’Lock 1972, 24), it is probable that the River Gowy was the eastern boundary of the prata legionis of the fortress at Chester. Could a similar origin be suggested for this name, at the western boundary of the prata legionis of the early fortress at Exeter or the territorium of the later capital of the Civitas Dumnoniorum?


 

16

 

Group 3: Somerset ?  Milidunum Sidford ? 1064=1062/1069/10619

 Apaunaris Bath ? 1064

 Masona Camerton? 1065

 Alouergium Shepton Mallett 1065

The Cosmographer returns to Moridunum, with the same peculiar -l- for -r- as in the previous group, and a similarly logical ordering of names (this time jumping north-eastward and then working back to the starting-point). Rivet & Smith (1979, 255) identify Apaunaris with Aquae Sulis, Bath, perhaps correctly, so the two remaining names may relate to sites between Bath and Sidford. <Masona> suggests a name derived from that of a river, although which cannot now be ascertained; it perhaps refers to the small town at Camerton. The name is corrupt. *Alobergium should be in a hilly location, probably near the Mendip Hills at Shepton Mallett, where parts of a Romano-British small town have recently been identified.


 The successors of Caesar and Augustus were persuaded to follow the example of the former, rather than the precept of the latter.

The proximity of its situation to the coast of Caul seemed to invite their arms ; the pleasing, though doubtful, intelligence of a pearl fishery, attracted their avarice ;  and as Britain was viewed in the light of a distinct and insulated world, the conquest scarcely formed any exception to the general system of continental measures. After a war of about forty years,
undertaken by the most stupid,3 maintained by the most dissolute, and terminated by the most timid of all the
emperors, the far greater part of the island submitted to the Roman yoke.The various tribes of Britons possessed Germanicus, Suetonius, Paulinus, and Agricola were checked and recalled in the course of their victories. Corbulo was put to death.
Military merit, as it is admirably expressed by Tacitus, was, in the strictest sense of the word, imperatoria virtus.



Caesar himself conceals that ignoble motive; but it is mentioned by Suetonius, c. 47. The British pearls proved, however, of little value, my account of their dark and livid colour. Tacitus observes, with reason (in Agricola, c. 12), that it was an inherent defect. “ Ego facilius crediderim, naturam margaritis deesse quam nobis avaritiam.”
 Claudius, Nero, and Domitian. A hope is expressed by Pomponius Mela, he wrote under Claudius, that, by the success of
the roman arms, the island and its savage inhabitants would soon be better known. It is amusing enough to peruse such passages in the midst of London.


 Bee the admirable abridgment given by Tacitus, in the life of Agricola, and copiously , though perhaps not completely, illustrated by our own antiquarians, Camden and Horsley.
valour without conduct, and the love of freedom without the spirit of union.
They took up arms with savage fierceness ; they laid them down, or turned them against each other, with wild inconstancy ; and while they fought singly, they were successively subdued.
Neither the fortitude of Caractacus, nor the despair of Boadicea, nor the fanaticism of the Druids, could avert the slavery of their country, or resist the steady progress of the Imperial generals, who maintained the national glory, when the throne was disgraced by the weakest, or the most vicious of mankind. A t the very time when Domitian,
confined to his palace, felt the terrors which he inspired, his legions, under the command of the virtuous Agricola, defeated the collected force of the
Caledonians, at the foot of the Grampian hills; and his fleets, venturing to explore an unknown and dangerous navigation displayed the Roman arms round every part of the island. The conquest of Britain was considered as already achieved; and it was the design of Agricola to complete and ensure his success, by the easy reduction of Ireland, for which, in his opinion, one
legion and a few auxiliaries were sufficient. The western isle might be improved into a valuable possession, and the Britons would wear their chains with the less reluctance, if the prospect and example of freedom were on every side removed from before their eyes. But the superior merit of Agricola soon occasioned his removal from the
government of Britain ; and for ever disappointed this rational , though extensive, scheme of conquest. Before his departure, the prudent general had provided for security as well as for dominion. He had observed that the island is almost divided into two unequal parts by the opposite gulfs, or, as they
are now called, the Friths of Scotland. Across the narrow interval of about forty miles, he had drawn a line of military stations, which was afterwards fortified in the reign of Antoninus Ptus, by a turf rampart, erected on founda1 The Irish writers, jealous of their national honour,