artur wolfram for excalibur
artur wolfram for excalibur
druid rule nature base
druid rule nature base
who met christ
who met christ
change of teacher
change of teacher
he said it and he is
he said it and he is
druids and nature
druids and nature
big beast auroch
big beast auroch
mendip caves
mendip caves
christmas or cold and dark and animal fertility
christmas or cold and dark and animal fertility
wpde7f4e0e_05_06
wpde7f4e0e_05_06
wpd5bda1d0_06
wpd5bda1d0_06
plymouth
plymouth
change of landscape
change of landscape
maurice
maurice



The earliest reference to the shire by name

is to be found in the Anglosaxon Chronicle under the year 851,

when “ the Alderman Ceorl

with the men of Defenasoir fought the heathen army at Wicganbeorg and after making great slaughter obtained the victory .”



In 894 the form Defnum occurs , Defenum in 897, and Defenun in a charter of 955.

Somewhat earlier , in 823 ,

the Chronicle speaks of “ the men of Devon ” as Defnas.

This tribal name was transferred, as in several other English counties,

In the territory inhabited by the tribe.


Tin Ingots

that had previously been recovered from the Erme Estuary. It was thought this analysis would take place during 2013 but has been moved to 2014 owing to funding. These are to be examined and scientifically dated by the British Museum.  Funding for this work has already been agreed and will commence towards the end of 2013. The aim is to date and correlate to those recovered and located at Moor Sand and Salcombe. This would then prove localised trade along the south coast of Devon.

Comparisons will then be made to terrestrial recoveries from Dartmoor, Cornwall and inland Devon. Research has shown that Tin and Copper recoveries have been made since prehistory all along the South Coast including rivers and estuaries, throughout Bronze and Iron Age, through Roman and Medieval to current times.

The Rivers Dart , Erme

Rising on the Southern slopes of Dartmoor, the River Erme bubbles and flows through granite and clay before joining the English Channel in Bigbury Bay. An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the Erme Estuary is a fantastic spot for Bird watching. Egret, Curlews, oyster-catchers ans kingfishers have all made this special place their home.

Avon

The River’s Avon & Gara, springing into life high on the southern slopes of Dartmoor, The River Avon meanders its way down through town and villages, nourishing the land and providing ample opportunities for enjoyment. The Avon Estuary walk is beautiful walking route were you are certain to spot some the wildlife that make their home on or in the River Avon The Salcombe Estuary is unique in the fact it is not fed by one main river but numerous small streams


The River Teign , Devon , Originating on Dartmoor and entering the sea at Teignmouth , the River Teign boasts hugely diverse habitats that attract a large variety of birds and wildlife. The Teign actually has two sources and these streams (the North and South Teign) descend the eastern slopes of the moor high above the village of Chagford.
From Chagford the River winds its way through the often wooded foothills of Dartmoor for nearly ten miles until below Dunsford it heads south, following the road to Chudleigh, Newton Abbot and ultimately into the estuary and the sea at Teignmouth.

Herons, kingfishers, dippers, grey wagtails, cormorants and goosanders can all be found along the Teign and otters are also making a comeback.

The Teign is noted for its salmon, brown trout and sea trout, with Drewe’s Weir being a good place to spot them leaping out of the water

and Tamar have not only provided Tin Streaming deposits but direct access to terrestrial deposits and others at Tor Royal on Dartmoor where recoveries and collections would have been brought down for final transit to the Continent . Tin bearing Ore Load has been seen at Deckler’s Cliff plus Copper further up.





TWO THOUSAND YEARS IN EXETER , Caer-pen-huel-goit,

Again, the site of Exeter lay some ten miles up-river from its mouth and this was important when invaders were most likely to come by sea and to attack coastal settlements. At Exeter one was safe from such attacks, or at least there was ample warning of strange ships coming into the estuary. From the volcanic hill we call Rougemont one could look right down to the mouth of the shining estuary and a strange fleet could be spotted hours before it could attack.

For all these reasons Exeter made a good trading-place, and above all, of course, it had something to sell—the products of a rich and varied countryside.

And so the stage was set for the village to grow into a town, and later still into a rich medieval city, on its hilltop in the far West of England.
The Coming of the Romans

The ancient British name for Exeter seems to have been Caerwysc .{ Isca dumnonia does not mean exeter ,  this is wrong interpretatin of isca  , waters of the dumnonii  may help identify the importance of transport hubs  such as waters around the now plmouth ,}

“the fortified town on the Exe”, but an even older name occurs in the tradition of a siege by the Roman general Vespasian in the year 49.  The tradition tells us that there was already a settlement here when Vespasian was sent westwards , and so supplements the evidence of the Hellenistic coins. At the time of this siege Exeter is said to have been called by the rather formidable name of Caer-pen-huel-goit, which means “die fortified town on the hill near the high or great wood”.

Such long descriptive place-names are a characteristic of Wales to this day, and it is quite likely that Exeter had some such ancient names as this in prehistoric times. “The fortified town on the hill ” aptly describes the first site of Exeter, with its earthwork on the end of the ridge or hill. “ The high or great wood ” probably refers to die wooded hills to the north of the city, what we now call Stoke Hill and Pennsylvania , which would have been densely wooded in prehistoric times. Stoke Woods today are a remnant of this great wood of two thousand and more years ago. The tradition of a siege by Vespasian has generally been discredited by modem historians, mainly on the ground that it appears in the writings of a chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth who is known to be very inaccurate, if no worse . He tells us that Vespasian was sent down by the Emperor Claudius to subdue South-West Britain, and that he besieged Exeter for eight days without success.  A British king then arrived from the east with an army and fought with Vespasian. Despite great losses on both sides neither got the victory. Vespasion went on to great things , was it on the back of the mineral weath lets look at new evince calstock dumnonia

The next thing is that vespasins ghost can be seen on dartmoor as the area is now known , well he was resident in exeter and travelled to ugborough in devon , where , he was meeting the king within , the king had an hareem now remember there were no motorways at his time , infact reference to the town of calstock in corwall or damnonia to vespasian  ; the isca's

of damnonia were beautifull lagoons ,




with Vespasian. Despite great losses on both sides neither got the victory.

The next thing is that vespasins ghost can be seen on dartmoor as the area is now known , well he was resident in exeter and travelled to ugborough in devon , where , he was meeting the king within , the king had an hareem now remember there were no motorways at his time , infact reference to the town of calstock in corwall or damnonia to vespasian  ; the isca's

of damnonia were beautifull lagoons ,







Exquisite Garden of Herbs quotes a 16th-century receipt

“ To enable one to see the fairies ,” 

a charm I never saw written down,  though one very similar was told me over thirty years ago by an old woman in the West Country.
 As in Miss Rohde’s version,
 Rosewater and Marigold water , herbs and flowers gathered to the East, played their part, but first in importance  — or perhaps first in my memory — was, thyme and grass from a fairy ring.
 I often wanted to test its magical properties , but never succeeded in waking at dawn. 

According to my informer, dawn, or just before set of full moon, was the correct hour at which to make one’s first bow to the little unseen folk. 

At that time of my life the inner wonder of her beliefs and friendship with the fairies— which none of her neighbours seemed to doubt— was just as it should be, and nothing much out of the ordinary. 

Now, when I could better appreciate it and have no unsympathetic nursemaid to scoff at pleadings to be allowed a hedgehog in bed to keep me awake on important business, the old lady sleeps forever, and the wood where she said the fairies could be found was cut down in 1916. 
To have missed collecting all the details for preparing such a truly content-giving charm still makes me “monstrous melancholy” ; old adjectives, “prodigious,” “vastly,” and their like, express better than modern words the seriousness of such a loss.
 The loss of enjoyment and belief in ancient charms and customs, not to mention courtesies, has spread like a pest amongst country-folk since Trippers “boomswisshed” into their midst, 

Trippers ready to believe that their name denotes: a rider in bangs, a litter distributor, one willing to murder flowers and behead wild rosebuds with paper streamers: not “one who walks nimbly, or dances with light feet.” Motor horns seem to be “The passing bell, also called the soul bell, ” sounding the knell of better days. 
The above paragraph was gently censored by one with a knowledge of “ Gardens and their Godly treasure to be found therein” that ranks him kin to Thomas Hill, who wrote as finale to The Profitable Art of Gardening, “The favour of God be with thee always.”
 At his suggestion I add a quotation from Grose: 4
“ The passing Bell was antiently rung for two purposes, one to bespeak the Prayers of all good Christians for a Soul just departing; the other to drive away evil Spirits who stood at the Bed’s foot, and about the House, ready to seize their prey, or at least to molest and terrify the Soul in its passage: but by the ringing of that Bell (for Durandus informs us Evil Spirits are much afraid of Bells) they were kept aloof and the Soul like a hunted Hare gained the start or what is by Sportsmen called Law.” Even if many of the old Contentments are gone beyond recall, we can, as he says, loudly “ring the funerall peale” over such fiendish customs as the games of “Mumble Sparrow” and “Cat in Bottle”— inflicting intense suffering on helpless animals.
 The charm and sheer word magic of most of the old writers incline one to forget that the Country Contentments of our ancestors generally were balanced by discontentments.


The New Art and Mystery of Gossiping and early issues of The Tatler and Spectator hint that 17th- and 18th-century Housewives were faced with difficulties similar to the troubles of a Maisonette wife or Flat-wife of to-day. 5

Posted by mengele at 17:24 

one willing to murder flowers and behead wild rosebuds

Trippers ready to believe that their name denotes: a rider in bangs, a litter distributor, one willing to murder flowers and behead wild rosebuds with paper streamers: not “one who walks nimbly, or dances with light feet.” Motor horns seem to be “The passing bell, also called the soul bell, ” sounding the knell of better days.

Country Contentments
STO LEN goods are sweetest when a title is needed for extracts from the “ Cunynge Curiosities” of 10th- to 18th-century writers; books “wherein, thou o Reader (if thou canst but read) art sure to finde abundance and plenty of matters most dainty.” Gervase Markham, the author of 16th-century Country Contentments, writes, like Sir Hugh Platt in The Garden of Eden, “to the pleasuring of others,” and title thief though I am, I can not feel that kindly Master Markham grudges me my stolen heading. “ I shall not blush to tell you I had some ambition to publish this book” for the “ pleasing” of “ all Gentlemen and Ladies and others delighting in God’s vegetable creatures.”
“When the greate books at large are not to be had but at greate price,” or after hours of search in ancient libraries, many modern readers must be denied access to the “Truths and Mysteries” early writers deemed all important, and occasionally, as Platt says, “rolled up in the most cloudy and darksome speech” after having“wrung them from the earth by the painfull hand of experience for your good entertainment.” Surely in a world which pessimists insist is being given over to the devil all should hear of a reliable Anglo-Saxon Salve against “Temptations of the Fiend”? A famous politician begged for the inclusion of a “Leechdom against a man full ofelfin tricks,” and suggested that certain citizens of the U.S.A. would welcome “A lithe soft drink against a devil and dementedness,” and might not Scotland Yard consider the possibilities of a prescription said to be infallible “If any evil tempting occur to a man” ? Such simple remedies, brewed, pounded or devised from garden herbes— “honest wortes,” mingled with Holy water, prayers, and flowers whose very names bring healing:— Love o’ the ground, All healand True Love,
Mothers wort and Queen of the Meadows. As for a salve wherewith to anoint the forehead against visits from“Elf or goblin night visitors,”our nurseries still need it, while an ointment inducing Elves to return and restore our lost childish faith in them would be of even greater value to some of us. 2


Miss Rohde in her exquisite Garden of Herbs quotes a 16th-century receipt

“ To enable one to see the fairies,”
a charm I never saw written down,
though one very similar was told me over thirty years ago by an old woman in the West Country.
As in Miss Rohde’s version,
Rosewater and Marigold water,herbs and flowers gathered to the East, played their part, but first in importance
— or perhaps first in my memory— was, thyme and grass from a fairy ring.
I often wanted to test its magical properties, but never succeeded in waking at dawn.

According to my informer, dawn, or just before set of full moon, was the correct hour at which to make one’s first bow to the little unseen folk.

At that time of my life the inner wonder of her beliefs and friendship with the fairies— which none of her neighbours seemed to doubt— was just as it should be, and nothing much out of the ordinary.

Now, when I could better appreciate it and have no unsympathetic nursemaid to scoff at pleadings to be allowed a hedgehog in bed to keep me awake on important business, the old lady sleeps forever, and the wood where she said thefairiescouldbe found was cut down in1916.
To have missed collecting all the details for preparing such a truly content-giving charm still makes me “monstrous melancholy” ; old adjectives, “prodigious,” “vastly,” and their like, express better than modern words the seriousness of such a loss.
The loss of enjoyment and belief in ancient charms and customs, not to mention courtesies, has spread like a pest amongst country-folk since Trippers “boomswisshed” into their midst,

Trippers ready to believe that their name denotes: a rider in bangs, a litter distributor, one willing to murder flowers and behead wild rosebuds with paper streamers: not “one who walks nimbly, or dances with light feet.” Motor horns seem to be “The passing bell, also called the soul bell, ” sounding the knell of better days.
The above paragraph was gently censored by one with a knowledge of “ Gardens and their Godly treasure to be found therein” that ranks him kin to Thomas Hill, who wrote as finale to The Profitable Art of Gardening, “The favour of God be with thee always.”
At his suggestion I add a quotation from Grose: 4
“ The passing Bell was antiently rung for two purposes, one to bespeak the Prayers of all good Christians for a Soul just departing; the other to drive away evil Spirits who stood at the Bed’s foot, and about the House, ready to seize their prey, or at least to molest and terrify the Soul in its passage: but by the ringing of that Bell (for Durandus informs us Evil Spirits are much afraid of Bells) they were kept aloof and the Soul like a hunted Hare gained the start or what is by Sportsmen called Law.” Even if many of the old Contentments are gone beyond recall, we can, as he says, loudly “ring the funerall peale” over such fiendish customs as the games of “Mumble Sparrow” and “Cat in Bottle”— inflicting intense suffering on helpless animals.
The charm and sheer word magic of most of the old writers incline one to forget that the Country Contentments of our ancestors generally were balanced by discontentments.


The New Art and Mystery of Gossiping and early issues of The Tatler and Spectator hint that 17th- and 18th-century Housewives were faced with difficulties similar to the troubles of a Maisonette wife or Flat-wife of to-day. 5



The land of the dark valleys was pronounced by the Kelts as Duvnant ,  which was later corrupted by the Romans to Dumnonia and was said by the Saxons as Defena.




 The hundred of Axminster was the name of one of thirty two ancient administrative units of Devon, England.

The parishes in the hundred were  Axminster ; Axmouth ; Combe Raleigh ; Combpyne; Dalwood; Honiton; Kilmington; Luppitt; Membury; Musbury; Rousdon; Stockland; Thorncombe; Uplyme; Upottery; Yarcombe In 1850 there were thirty-two hundreds in Devon according to White's History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Devonshire 

The hundred of Bampton was the name of one of thirty two ancient administrative units of Devon, England. 
The parishes in the hundred were: Bampton; Burlescombe; (part) Clayhanger; Hockworthy; Holcombe Rogus; Morebath and Uffculme.

Black Torrington Hundred ; Braunton Hundred ; Cliston Hundred ; Coleridge Hundred ; Colyton Hundre

The hundred of Crediton was the name of one of thirty-two ancient administrative units of Devon, England. 
The parishes in the hundred were:

Colebrooke; Crediton; Kennerleigh; Morchard Bishop; Newton St Cyres and Sandford. East Budleigh Hundred ; Ermington Hundred ; Exminster Hundred ; Fremington Hundred ; Halberton Hundred ; Hartland Hundred ; Hayridge Hundred  ;  Haytor Hundred ; Hemyock Hundred ; Lifton Hundred
North Tawton and Winkleigh Hundred ; Ottery Hundred  ; Plympton Hundred

Plympton Hundred was the name of one of thirty two ancient administrative units of Devon, England.
The parishes in the hundred were: Brixton, Plympton St Mary, Plympton St Maurice, Plymstock, Revelstoke, Shaugh Prior, Wembury and Yealmpton

The hundred of Roborough was the name of one of thirty two ancient administrative units of Devon, England. Roborough, Torridge, was within Fremington Hundred
The parishes in the hundred were: Bere Ferrers Bickleigh (near Plymouth) ; Buckland Monachorum  ;  East Stonehouse ; Egg Buckland ; Maker (in Cornwall from 1844)
Meavy ; Pennycross ; Peter Tavy
Plymouth: Charles the Martyr
Plymouth: St Andrew
Sampford Spiney
Sheepstor
St Budeaux
Stoke Damerel
Tamerton Foliot
Walkhampton
Whitchurch.
Woodtown


Shebbear Hundred
Shirwell Hundred
South Molton Hundred
Stanborough Hundred
Tavistock Hundred

Tavistock Hundred was the name of one of thirty two ancient administrative units of Devon, England.
The parishes in the hundred were: Brentor, Milton Abbot and Tavistock 


Teignbridge Hundred

Teignbridge Hundred was the name of one of thirty two ancient administrative units of Devon, England.
The parishes in the hundred were: Ashburton, Bickington, Bovey Tracey, Hennock, Highweek, Ideford, Ilsington, Kingsteignton, Lustleigh, Manaton, Moretonhampstead, North Bovey and Teigngrace 


Tiverton Hundred
West Budleigh Hundred
Witheridge Hundred
Wonford Hundred