St. Gerren,King of Dumnonia St. Constantine's son, Gereint rac Dehau or "Gerren for the South" was immortalised by Aneirin in his epic poem Y Gododdin. It tells of King Gerren's valiant death in 598, when the Celtic kingdoms under Kings Mynyddog Mwynfawr (the Wealthy) of Din-Eidyn (Edinburgh) & Cynan of Gododdin (Lothian) rode south to fight Saxon Bernicia against enormous odds at the Battle of Catreath (Catterick, Yorks). However, it seems that Gerren may have only been mortally wounded at the battle, dying some days later. While fleeing to Brittany to escape plague in Wales, St. Teilo was entertained by King Gerren at his castle of Dingerein near the village of Gerrans on the Roseland Penninsula. He promised the King, he would not die without taking communion from the saint. Teilo did not return for seven years, when his ship was greeted by Dumnonian courtiers who emplored him to hasten to the dying King's side. Gerren was overjoyed to see his friend's return. He received the host and died in Teilo's arms. Far away, in Brittany, St. Turiau, saw his soul ascending to heaven. His body, in full regalia, was placed in a great sarcophagus on a huge golden ship that slipped down "The Mermaid's Hole" and into the sea. He was then rowed across Gerrans Bay using solid silver oars and buried, ship and all, beneath the great barrow of Carne Beacon near Veryan. He waits, sword in hand, for the day when he will return to reclaim his Kingdom. Though excavated in 1855 no gold or silver, let alone a great ship, was found, only a small cist burial. Admittedly, the digging did only concentrate on the centre of the mound. The mermaid tunnel between the Dumnonian Royal Palace and the sea was said to have been rediscovered by a farmer in the 19th century. Gerren is revered as a saint at Gerrans parish church, at Magor in Gwent and at several sites in Brittany.
It is mentioned in the Welsh tale Culhwch and Olwen which may date from the 11th century. The story describes the court as being at Celliwig in Cernyw the Welsh name for Cornwall, otherwise known as the kingdom of Dumnonia including modern Devon.
"mention the court. Celliwig was also known to the Cornish as well,
as it appears as Kyllywyc in the Cornish-language play Beunans Ke, written perhaps around 1500. In the Iolo Manuscripts (1843) a corpus of pseudo-medieval Welsh texts by the renowned literary forger and inventor of tradition Iolo Morganwg (1747–1826), Celliwig is referred as the former site of the " throne of Cornwall " but the text adds that it is now at Caervynyddawg (Caerfynyddog), a site which is otherwise unattested.
A 1302 Cornish legal record mentions a 'Thomas de Kellewik' from west Cornwall,
though his exact place of origin is unknown.
Celliwig was identified by some Cornish antiquaries from 1816 onwards with Callington
(occasionally locally attested as 'Callywith')
where the ancient monuments of Castlewich Henge and Cadson Bury ringfort are in close proximity. Their influence gave Callington its modern name in Common Cornish;
Kelly Bray , Cornish : Kellibregh '
is located just to the north.
Fox, A., 1951, Eighteenth Report on the Archaeology and Early History of Devon, 37 (Article in Serial). SDV15558.
A stone axe was found on the surface in Clovelly Dykes hill-fort. The Stone Axe Co report that it is a sheared tremolite, with chlorite and ilmenite, originally probably from the greenstone of Balstone Down, near Callington, Cornwall. 12 other axes of this rock, forming group 4 of the committee's classification, are known from sites in Devon, Cornwall, Somerset.
Stone, J. F. S. + Wallis, F. S., 1951, Untitled Source, 113 (Article in Serial). SDV15561.
And this murdered King is by tradition also connected with another fortress roughly mid-way between Duloe and Roche - which are south of the Bodmin and Goss Moors respectivelyfor the field in which stands Castle Dore was called Carhurles meaning 'Gorlas'sfortress'. It therefore seems that the chieftain could have preceded King Mark of the Tristan saga at this earthwork which is known to have been re-occupied in Gorlas's time having been abandoned during the Roman period . Assuming that the traditional link between the Arthurian and Tristan sagas could be factual and that King Mark DID succeed GORLAS and hold this southern territory by the sixth century,
And this could be to the dismay of sceptics for Camlan also seems to fit this district. too Charters clearly demonstrate that the present misnomer Allen, by which the River Camel's tributary is known instead of by its correct name Laine, originally applied to the* Camel itself and was accurately rendered ALAN. As this River Alan or Camel twisted and turned, the Cornish epithet 'cam' meaning 'crooked' apparently prefixed not only the word 'heyle' meaning 'estuary' but also on occasion the name Alan. Thus, it would seem that the present name Camel is a corruption of one or both of the Cornish names for this river - Camheyle and CAMALAN. ° It might therefore be interesting to seek the required conditions in the Camel Valley.
Of six known stones in Cornwall which are inscribed in the Irish script copipri-sing unconnected strokes and called Ogham, five are on Bodmin Moor and three of these in the Camel area.
Should the sixth seem curiously remote from the others at Truro,
However and regarding names on the three Camel Ogham stones, that at St. Endell ion-which also bears the early ChristianChi Rho symbol, 'XP‘,the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ - commemorates 'Brocagnus', identified^with the Irishman Brychan
Incorporated in several place names, it is included in the name Worthyvale which appeared as 'Guerdevalen1 in the Domesday Book showing that there was an Early English homestead by an orchard adjacent to the area known as Slaughterbridge at the head of the River Camel. In fact, this very district has been traditionally regarded as the setting of the final act of the Arthurian drama. Such regard, however, has lately been swamped in the scorn which has been poured upon the local name'Arthur's Grave1 for the Ogham stone actually commemorating 'Latinos', upon reports of battle debris found there, and upon the Tintagel paraphernalia so that the mere whisper of Arthur's name in this part of Cornwall seems actionable under the recent Retail Descriptions Act'. Yet, when it is noticed that Worthyvale is virtually an isle amid streamlets and that the word slaughter, probably deriving from the Old English for'muddy', suggests thesurrounding land wasonce mire, it is hard not to suspect that there IS Avalon. It may seem immaterial that thewoods of Camlanand perhaps even Avaloncannot be seen for the trees of scepticism. However, the Camel Valley which has close on 900 yearsof popular and possibly justifiable identification with the Arthurian legend is largely dependent upon tourism. Surely time and money spent trying to prove Arthur elsewhere is notonly longoverdue, but might the more effectively be invested, in his traditional homeland where associations with him have yet to be CONVINCINGLY refuted'. QUEST FOR SOULS Time was when stories of Cornish saints were taken with the dose of salt reserved for thoseof the Arthurian and Tristan legends'. Not so now for the likelihood of essential events of both actually taking place is increasingly accepted. If the militancy of Christianity represented in the Arthurian and Tristan sagas very naturally predominated during the reassertion of Dumnonian tribalism after the Romans had gone, its civilising power was to settle it through the influence of saintly colonists- Hitherto, the search for living spacehad motivated the movement of peoples, now it was the quest for souls and missionaries from Ireland, Wales and Brittany were to nurture the infant Christianity conceived here in Roman times. So many places on the map retain the names of these saints, the earliest of whom probably emanated from South) Wales where IItut had founded a monastic training school at LIantwit Ma jor in Glamorgan. A reconstruction of possible events at Bodmin6could represent those in many a Cornish area during the fifth century. The Celts of Bodmin's hill fort, Castle Canyke, might have noticed the arrival of a stranger in the valley below them at the east end of the present Priory Park. Bearded and with the front of his head shaven leaving hair flowing long behind, the intruder would set about collecting stones and,wood which he would take to the spring. Soon he would build a hut, set up a roughly carved standing stone and surround these and his well with a piled-stone wall; and there he would fast and pray for forty days.* Then he must have visited them, his psalm-book swinging from his waist and the bell on his spade-topped staff sounding his approach. His name was Gwrin, or Guron, and he had journeyed from Wales by sea The fasting and praying were to dedicate his 'Ian1 or monastic enclosure, the stone was a cross to signify a Christian foundation and the hut was his oratory from which he would evangelise the district and which might become his shrine after death. As the people took to him, Guron would celebrate the sail
Cyfeirir ato yn y stori Gymraeg Culhwch ac Olwen a all ddyddio o'r 11eg ganrif. Mae'r stori'n disgrifio'r llys fel un yn Celliwig yn Cernyw
(yr enw Cymraeg ar Gernyw), a elwir hefyd yn deyrnas Dumnonia gan gynnwys Dyfnaint modern.
"Tair Thrones Tribal Ynys Prydain" a lleoli un o'i lysoedd yn Celliwig: "Arthur fel Prif Dywysog yn Celliwig yn Cernyw,
a'r Esgob Bytwini yn Brif Esgob , a Caradog Freichfras fel Prif Flaenor. " Caradoc oedd ei brif flaenor yn y llys hwn a bod yr Esgob Bytwini neu Bedwin yn brif esgob.
Dyma un o'r triawdau cynnar a ddarganfuwyd yn Peniarth MS 54 sy'n adlewyrchu gwybodaeth a gofnodwyd gerbron Sieffre o Fynwy. Aiff yr un triawd ymlaen i ddweud bod llysoedd eraill Arthur ym Mynyw a Phen Rhionydd. Mae'r triawdau hefyd yn nodi bod Cellenig Mordred wedi taro ergyd i Gwenhwyfar. Efallai bod hyn wedi arwain at Frwydr Camlann. Y gerdd Gymraeg gynnar Pa foddaeth porthor? Efallai hefyd fod Arthur yn ffigwr chwedlonol hefyd yn awgrymu bod y llys hwn yn hollol ffuglennol. O ystyried bod yr enw yn golygu "rhigol coedwig ... efallai ei fod wedi'i ragweld yn wreiddiol fel rhywle arallfydol (llwyni cysegredig yn gyffredin yn y myth Celtaidd) a dim ond yn ddiweddarach y gallai lleoliad penodol fod wedi'i briodoli iddo." Soniwch am y llys. Roedd Celliwig hefyd yn hysbys i'r Gernyweg hefyd, gan ei bod yn ymddangos fel Kyllywyc yn y ddrama iaith Gernyweg Beunans Ke, a ysgrifennwyd efallai tua 1500. Yn Llawysgrifau Iolo (1843)
corpws o destunau Cymraeg ffug-ganoloesol gan y ffugiwr llenyddol enwog a dyfeisiwr traddodiad Iolo Morganwg (1747-1826), Cyfeirir at Celliwig fel hen safle "gorsedd Cernyw" ond mae'r testun yn ychwanegu ei fod bellach yng Nghaervynyddawg (Caerfynyddog), safle sydd heb ei brofi fel arall.
Mae cofnod cyfreithiol Cernyw 1302 yn sôn am 'Thomas de Kellewik' o orllewin Cernyw,
er nad yw ei union fan tarddiad yn hysbys. Dynodwyd Celliwig gan rai hynafiaethwyr Cernyw o 1816 ymlaen gyda Callington (a ardystiwyd yn lleol weithiau fel 'Callywith') lle mae henebion hynafol Cestyll Castlewich Henge a Cadson Bury yn agos iawn. Rhoddodd eu dylanwad ei enw modern i Callington yn Common Cornish ; Kelly Bray (Cernyweg: Kellibregh 'dappled grove') wedi ei leoli ychydig i'r gogledd. Awgrym arall ar y pryd oedd Kelliwith. Ymhlith y lleoliadau eraill a awgrymir mae Coed Gweek ac ar yr arfordir yn Trwyn Tintagel Barras neu Willapark. Fe wnaeth Rachel Bromwich, golygydd diweddaraf y Triads Cymreig, ei baru â Kelly Rounds, bryngaer ym mhlwyf Cernyw yn Egloshayle. Awgrymwyd hyn eisoes gan Charles Henderson yn y Cornish Church Guide (1925) (t. 87). Yn ddiddorol ddigon,
mae Cosmograffeg Ravenna yn nodi anheddiad rhanbarthol mawr yn oes y Rhufeiniaid fel Nemetostatio yn Dua mnonicentral (wedi'i nodi â Gogledd Tawton, Dyfnaint) a fyddai'n cyfieithu o'r Lladin fel 'The Outpost of the Sacred Grove (s)'. Heb fod ymhell o ffin fodern Cernyw mae pentref Kelly yn Nyfnaint sy'n dwyn ei enw oddi wrth deulu lleol hynafol, wedi'i ardystio mor bell yn ôl â'r 11eg ganrif. Y tu allan i Gernyw Fodd bynnag, mae yna hefyd nifer o leoedd o'r enw Cernyw neu'n cynnwys yr enw hwnnw yng Nghymru,
ee yr enw lle Coedkernew (Coed Cernyw) yng Nghasnewydd. Felly awgrymwyd y gallai'r llys hwn fod yn fryngaer Llanmelin, ger Caerwent.
Gan fod Caradog wedi'i gysylltu â Theyrnas Gwent gallai hyn gefnogi'r syniad hwn. Mae yna hefyd fferm o'r enw Gelliweg ar benrhyn Llosg yng Ngwynedd y mae un pâr o ymchwilwyr ac ysgrifenwyr Arthuraidd, Dadleua Steven Blake a Scott Lloyd, efallai mai'r lleoliad. Celliwig fel lle ffuglennol Y rhai sy'n dadlau bod Bodmin Moor gan Gorlas.
Ac mae'r Brenin a lofruddiwyd hefyd yn ôl traddodiad hefyd yn gysylltiedig â chaer arall tua hanner ffordd rhwng Duloe a Roche - sydd i'r de o Rostiroedd Bodmin a Goss - ar gyfer y cae lle saif Castell Dore o'r enw Carhurles sy'n golygu 'caer Gorlas'.
Mae'n ymddangos felly y gallai'r pennaeth fod wedi rhagflaenu'r Brenin Marc o saga Tristan yn y gwrthglawdd hwn y gwyddys iddo gael ei ail-feddiannu yn amser Gorlas ar ôl cael ei adael yn ystod y cyfnod Rhufeinig. Gan dybio bod y cysylltiad traddodiadol rhwng
gallai'r sagas Arthuraidd a Tristan fod yn ffeithiol a bod y Brenin Marc DID yn olynu GORLAS ac yn dal y diriogaeth ddeheuol hon erbyn y chweched ganrif, nid yn unig rhaid i barth Arthur o Camlan, ffurf hynaf Camelot, a dylid ceisio ei gadarnle Celliwic mewn man arall ond dylid ei gwneud yn ofynnol i'r ardal a awgrymir gyflawni rhai amodau er mwyn cyflwyno cynnig dichonadwy iddo'i hun. Gan y byddai digwyddiadau Arthuraidd wedi digwydd ychydig cyn digwyddiadau saga Tristan,
dylai goresgyniad Gwyddelig fod mewn tystiolaeth ar gyfer prolog y saga yn darlunio’r Gernyweg wrth bennau boncyffion gyda thresmaswyr Gwyddelig ;
ac mae traddodiad marchfilwyr Rhufeinig hysbys yn hanfodol os ydym am gredu y gallai'r ardal arfaethedig gynhyrchu a a gludir gan geffylau, rhyfelwr wedi'i orchuddio ag arfwisg ynghyd ag ystyr Carlyon 'gwersyll y lleng' yr oedd, yn ôl y sôn, gysylltiad ag ef. Ar ben hynny, efallai y byddai'r ardal a awgrymir yn cynnig ei hun yn fwy argyhoeddiadol pe bai'n gyfagos i'r llwybr hawsaf allan o Gernyw i hwyluso symud i fyny'r wlad i safle lle
atal cynnydd ymddangosiadol Seisnig tua'r gorllewin.
Yn olaf, dylem geisio Avalon ar gyfer y Brenin sy'n marw.
YR IWERDDON A CARLYON Mae'r enw lle Celliwic i'w gael nid yn unig yn y chwedl Arthuraidd ond hefyd,
fel yr amrywiad Caellwig * yn hanes diweddarach Cernyw ac felly mae'n sicr yn ardal o'r sir ac yn un o'r Rhostiroedd mae'n debyg. Er bod anghydfod ynghylch ei safle, yr arwyddion yw y Caniateir iddo setlo yn y pen draw lle mae eisoes yn hofran rhwng caerau bryniau 96 35 32. 2 Killybury
a Canyke-by-Callywith, mae hynny yn Nyffryn Camel.
A gallai hyn fod er mawr siom i amheuwyr i Camlan hefyd fel petai'n gweddu i'r ardal hon. hefyd mae Siarteri yn dangos yn glir bod y camarweinydd presennol A | len, y mae llednant Rivoi Camel yn cael ei hadnabod yn lle wrth ei henw cywir Laine, a gymhwyswyd yn wreiddiol at y * Camel ei hun ac a roddwyd yn gywir ALAN. Wrth i'r Afon Alan neu'r Camel hon droelli a throi, mae'n debyg bod yr epithet Cernyw 'cam' sy'n golygu 'cam' yn rhagddodi nid yn unig y gair 'heyle' sy'n golygu 'aber' ond hefyd weithiau'r enw Alan. Felly, mae'n ymddangos bod yr enw presennol Camel yn llygredigaeth o un neu'r ddau o'r enwau Cernyweg ar yr afon hon - Camheyle a CAMALAN. °
could have been a memorial stone to either 'Cnegumus son of Genaius' or 'Genaius son of Cnegumus'.AntiquitiesEvidence of early medieval habitation at Mawgan is in the form of an inscribed pillar stone, located at the meeting of three roads at the center of the village; it bears an inscription that is no longer readable, but based on an old drawing and a photograph taken in 1936 it could have been a memorial stone to either 'Cnegumus son of Genaius' or 'Genaius son of Cnegumus'. The date of this inscription is not certain beyond having been carved before the twelfth century.At Trelowarren is the estate of the Vyvyan family who have owned it since 1427. The Halliggye Fogou at Trelowarren is the largest in Cornwall. Trelowarren House has a complex building history: the original house is mid 15th century and there are later parts dated 1662, 1698 and ca. 1750 (further additions were made during the 19th century)
Roman Calstock A curiosity for the historically inclined – it was always believe that there was really not much Roman presence in Cornwall. But in 2008, an excavation looking for traces of medieval silver mining found instead an enormous first-century Roman fortress near the Church at Calstock. There’s nothing much Roman to see there now, but the church is a pretty spot and you may like to drop by to see if you can spot any legionary ghosts, marching up the hill from the quiet mists of the river Tamar.
The site of Calstock Roman Fort probably dating from the 1st century AD. This is only the third Roman fort to have been found in Cornwall and the first with possible associations with Roman military interests in Cornwall's mineral resources. The site is located on a spur above the river Tamar near to St. Andrew's church in the parish of Calstock, Cornwall. It was found accidently by a team from Exeter University, as part of the larger Bere Ferrers Project, investigating the development of medieval silver mines in this area. A geophysical survey in 2007 revealed the outline of a Roman fort enclosed by two ramparts and two ditches. A number of anomalies were also revealed which may be associated with Roman metalworking. In 2008 a trial trench was excavated on the site which revealed details of the fort's defences. The fort measures circa 170m by 160m, with an internal area of circa 140m by 130m (1.82 hectares). This is much larger than the other two known Roman forts in Cornwall; Nanstallon (Monument Number 431370) and Restormel (Monument Number 432777). Two ramparts and ditches were uncovered. The outer rampart is approximately five metres wide and is constructed of clay and shillet from the digging of the ditches. The sides of the rampart were held together with timbers on both faces. Two ditches were uncovered between the inner and outer rampart with characteristic v-shaped profiles and square-cut bases which is typical of Roman military sites. They were 2.8m deep and approximately 3.5m wide. The outer rampart was also approximately five metres wide and the investigations show that it was capped with large sandstone rubble on the western and southern sides of the fort. Just outside this rampart a stone-lined furnace structure was excavated. Finds from it included Roman pottery, fragments of furnace lining and some ore and slag which suggest that Roman metalworking was taking place in the 1st century AD. A track leading into the fort was also identified.
Trethevy Quoit OS grid ref:- SX 259 688 Imposing Trethevy Quoit, situated near to the village of St. Cleer on the south eastern edge of Bodmin Moor, is one of the best known of Cornwall's prehistoric monuments and is remarkably well preserved. Also known locally as the Giant's House or King Arthur's Quoit, the monument measures over 15 feet high (4.6 Metres). The Quoit stands in a field at the back of some cottages. The megalithic chamber, the largest in the country, sits on a mound which it is thought covered the lower part of the stones, acting as a ramp to aid access to the chamber during burials. It consists of six upright slabs of about three metres high (10 feet) which support a capstone measuring 3.7metres (12 feet) long. The rectangular chamber measures 2 x 1.5 metres. A small portion of the front entrance stone is missing, it has been theorised that this was cut to provide an entrance into the chamber. A natural hole exists at its highest point. The function of this hole remains an enigma, although there is speculation that it was used for astronomical observations. The chamber was used as a tomb between 1,800 and 1,200B.C. The western stone collapsed before 1850. Directions To reach Trethevy Quoit take the road South West to St Cleer from the Minions, passing a Cornish cross on the left and approximately one mile later take the road on the left to Darite. The site is signposted and a small parking area is provided. There is free access at all times.
Prehistoric Sites in Cornwall Lanyon Quoit Zennor Quoit
Nanstallon Roman Fortis thought to have been occupied from AD 65 to AD 79. It now remains as earthworks. The Roman military character of the earthwork on Tregear Farm was established in excavations between 1965 and 1969. This had been recognised in the 19th century from the many Roman objects of first century date ploughed up over many generations and listed by Iago. In the mid 19th century, the site was described as having very wide double ramparts which were gradually destroyed for field dressing and the eastern side ploughed out. Excavations have provided evidence for a 2.2 acre fort with turf revetted ramparts, timber angle towers, metalled roads and double gates. It is thought to have been too small to accommodate a complete auxiliary unit. It probably housed a detachment responsible for the supervision of lead and silverextraction. The principia was of unusual plan, very wide in proportion to its depth. Long halls were present on either side of the courtyard and a recessed entrance and portico were present at the front of the building. The Barrack blocks were rectangular in plan with no projecting officers' quarters or verandahs. There were larger rooms present at the end of each block.The compound adjoining the praetorum was defined by a timber fence. The yard was lightly metalled with post holes suggesting the presence of lean to sheds. One possible function of the compound was that of an ablutions block. This fort is only one area of three examples to have a double portal gate. The other examples include Baginton (Neronian in date) and Brough on Humber (Early Flavian). The dating evidence from coins and pottery suggests that Nanstallon Roman Fort was constructed late in the reign of Nero, certainly after AD 64, and withdrawal occurred during the reign of Vespasian (69-79) or very soon afterwards. The finds from the site have been donated to Truro Museum. In addition, flints found in the excavation are thought to date to the Neolithic or later.