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one god 


an advance in mental evolution










 






At that time can you consider attitudes to sex and then to the treatment of others in society inthe roman empire  , crucifiction was standard in the roman empre and then shall we consider their gods , so why would they consider jewish philosophy , and even then consider the teachings of Jesus Christ

so roman gods an old philosophy

Roman Gods and Goddesses

The Ancient Roman religion was based on a belief in a variety of different gods and goddesses, with each playing an important role in different aspects of everyday life during Ancient Roman times. While there were thousands of Roman gods, here, we'll introduce you to the12 major Roman gods and goddesses.

Many of the Roman gods and goddesses were derived from the Ancient Greeks Gods. However, as the years went by, their polytheistic religion started to slowly decline, when Christianity became more influential during the 4th century, and eventually Christianity overtook the polytheistic religion completely.

Who were the 12 Roman Gods and Goddesses?

  • Jupiter- God of the Sky
  • Juno- Queen of the Gods
  • Saturn- God of Time
  • Neptune- God of the Seas
  • Pluto- God of the Underworld
  • Venus- God of Love and Beauty
  • Minerva- Goddess of Wisdom
  • Mars- God of War
  • Mercury- Messenger of the Gods
  • Apollo- God of the Sun
  • Diana- Goddess of the Hunt
  • Ceres- Goddess of Agriculture and Familial Love


Roman Religion

The Romans worshipped many Gods - this is because they believed that everything from rivers to trees, and cows to crops, had a guardian spirit watching over it. Each god could be assigned one or more jobs - some of these jobs could be very important, like ensuring the sun rose each day, or crops grew in the fields, whereas others were less important.

The people of Rome would pray to their gods at least once a day - the god they would pray to would depend on what they wanted, or needed. As Rome expanded, and its citizens came into contact with people who worshipped other gods, they adopted more and more into their roster. The train of thought was that if the new people in Rome had been successful, the god they worshipped must have played a hand in their success. So the Romans decided to adopt gods from other religions. However, they would change their names to represent Roman names, and aspects of their personality too. The Romans particularly liked a lot of the Greek gods, so much so that they adopted many of them into their own religion, combining them with the older Etruscan gods that the Romans worshipped before.

The Romans took the worship of their gods extremely seriously, and they dedicated a lot of their time to it. As well as worship, sacrifices were also expected to be made to the gods. Almost everything that happened to a Roman citizen, good or bad, would be linked back to their worship, or in some cases, lack of it - to the gods.

Did you know:the Romans believed that blood sacrifices were the best way to communicate with the gods, and demonstrate their dedication. As a result, bulls, sheep and pigs were common sacrifices.

Jupiter - King of the gods and the sky

Jupiter was regarded as the Roman equivalent of the Greek God - Zeus. Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto. He was the king of the gods, also known as the sky god, or the great protector. He controlled the weather and the forces of nature, and he was known to send thunderbolts to warn the citizens of Rome.

Juno - Queen of the Roman gods

Juno, who was based on the Greek goddess, Hera, was Jupiter's wife. It is said that she was the Queen of the Heavens, as well as childbirth and fertility. The month of June is named after Juno.

Neptune - Roman god of the seas

Neptune is the Roman equivalent to Poseidon. He was the deity of the sea, although later he was associated with rivers as well. In art, he is often shown with a trident and a dolphin.

Minerva - Roman goddess of wisdom and war

Minerva is the Roman name for Athena, most commonly known as the goddess of war, however she was also the goddess of commerce, industry, and education. Legend has it that she sprung from Jupiter's head.


Mars - God of war

Mars was the Roman version of Ares. He was the god of war, and second in command to Jupiter. Mars was considered to be the father of Romulus and Remus, the mythical twin creators of Rome.

Venus - Roman goddess of love and beauty

Venus is based on the Greek Goddess Aphrodite, and is the of goddess of love, beauty, and fertility. According to legend, Venus was born out of the foam of the sea. That’s why in art she is often depicted rising out of the waves in a clam.


Apollo - God of sun, music and dance

Apollo kept his Greek name and is known as Phoebus in Roman literature, too. Apollo had many jobs and responsibilities, as he was the god of archery, music, dance, healing and disease, as well as sun and light. He was seen as one of the most influential Roman gods, and was the son of Jupiter/Zeus.

Diana - Roman goddess of the hunt

Diana is the Roman version of Artemis. She was the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, the moon, chastity and childbirth. She was the twin sister of Apollo, and she was very popular with Romans who lived in rural areas.

Pluto - God of the underworld

Pluto was the brother of Jupiter and Neptune, and god of the Underworld. The Underworld was believed by the Romans to be the place people went after death.


Mercury - Messenger of the gods

is the Roman version of Hermes, and is the god of translation, interpretation and messenger of the gods. He was considered the cleverest out of all the Olympian gods, and he was a messenger for them. He also ruled over wealth, good fortune and commerce.

Saturn - God of time

Saturn was the first king of the gods, and he was also known as the god of time. Saturn carries a scythe - a tool used to cut crops. Saturn's festival, the Saturnalia, became one of the most popular Roman festivals. When Saturn died, the world was split between his sons, Neptune, Pluto and Jupiter.


Ceres - goddess of agriculture

Ceres was the Roman equivalent to the Greek goddess Demeter. In both Greece and Rome she was the goddess of grain and agriculture, so she was extremely important to farmers, and was credited with teaching humans how to grow, preserve, and prepare grain and corn, as she was thought to be responsible for the fertility of the land. Unlike a lot of the gods, Ceres was believed to take an active role in day-to-day life. She was also heavily associated with motherhood and motherly love, due to her close relationship with her daughter Proserpine (or Persephone); the wife of Hades. The Romans believed that the seasons were caused because Ceres went into mourning for half the year when Proserpine was in the underworld with her husband during the winter months, and would celebrate her return by making the earth fertile during the summer.

These are the 12 main gods and goddess' in both Greek and Roman polytheism. However, as we mentioned before, there were other gods too, though they took a back seat in comparison to the main Olympian gods, you might recognise a few of them:

Vulcan- god of fire and the forge

Vesta- god of the home and domestic life

Pax- the god of peace

Nemesis- the goddess of revenge

Cupid- the god of desire

Bacchus- the god of wine, drunkenness, madness and revelry

Janus- the god of gates, doorways, and time

The Furies- the goddesses of vengeance

Some other gods were also commonly worshipped in the Roman empire after being adopted from different regions. Some stayed quite regional, surviving as local patron deities, whereas others rose to the status of separate faiths worshipped instead of, or alongside, the core Roman pantheon. Here's some of the most well-known examples:

Mithras

Mithras was a god who was very popular with soldiers all over the Roman empire. We don't know exactly where Mithras came from, and indeed he may have been an amalgamation of a few other gods who were all bundled together to form a new faith, but historians and archaeologists believe that Mithras' origins were in modern-day Iran. He was commonly depicted slaying a bull, and was associated with warfare and the sun.

Isis

Isis was originally an Egyptian goddess, heavily associated with magic, mysticism and with healing. She became very popular in Rome after Egypt was added to the Empire.

Cybele

Cybele was a mother goddess, originally from what's now modern Turkey. The Romans adopted her and renamed her 'Magna Mater', using her as a way to claim Trojan heritage (which the Romans commonly tried to lay claim to in order to give themselves a more glorious mythic history). Her worship was originally quite heavily Romanized, but later it began to return to older traditions from Asia Minor, and many Romans saw worshippers of Cybele as effeminate and barbaric.

Sol Invictus

Sol Invictus was a Romanized version of a Syrian sun god, who was combined with an early Roman sun god Sol who had largely been forgotten when the Romans adopted the Greek pantheon. The worship of this god was extremely popular during the later years of the Roman empire, prior to Constantine I's conversion to Christianity.

Babylonian date of  Addaru
            ABOUT THE TIME OF JESUS’ DEATH Most early accounts suggest that Jesus died between AD28 to AD33.
    JULIUS AFRICANUS: says the passover when Jesus was killed was “the 2nd year of the 102nd Olympiad ” (Ch 18:2-3) which by his reference to Tiberius shows he meant the 202nd Olympiad which was the passover between July AD30 to July AD31. (Chronology 18:1-3) Perhaps AD29.

 

















            Boudicca joined forces with the Trinovantes and together they raised an army

to fight the Romans.

 Boudicca's army captured and burned London Colchesterahcf St Albans. The Romans were forced-fe raise largest army they had ever had to defeat queen Boudicca.

 The Romans killed anyonewho had fougt them Boudicca poisoned herself to prevent the romans catching her.....

    TWO THOUSAND YEARS IN EXETER


    Again, the site of Exeter lay some ten miles up-river from its mouth and this was important when invaders were most likely to come by sea and to attack coastal settlements.

    At Exeter one was safe from such attacks, or at least there was ample warning of strange ships coming into the estuary.

    From the volcanic hill we call Rougemont one could look right down to the mouth of the shining estuary and a strange fleet could be spotted hours before it could attack.


    For all these reasons Exeter made a good trading-place, and above all, of course, it had something to sell— the products o f a rich and varied countryside.


    And so the stage was set for the village to grow into a town, and later still into a rich medieval city, on its hilltop in the far West of England.


    The Coming of the Romans
    The ancient British name for Exeter seems to have been Caerwysc,meaning “the fortified town on the Exe” , but an even older name occurs in the tradition of a siege by the Roman general Vespasian in the year 49.


    The tradition tells us that there was already a settlement here when Vespasian was sent westwards, and so supplements the evidence of the Hellenistic coins.

    At the time of this siege Exeter is said to have
    been called by the rather formidable name of Caer-pen-huel-goit, which means “ die fortified town on the hill near the high or great wood” .


    Such long descriptive place-names are a characteristic of Wales to this day, and it is quite likely that Exeter had some such ancient names as this in prehistoric times.

    “ The fortified town on the hill”
    aptly describes the first site of Exeter, with its earthwork on the end of the ridge or hill.

    “The high or great wood” probably refers to die wooded hills to the north of the city, what we now call Stoke Hill and Pennsylvania, which would have been densely wooded in prehistoric times.

    Stoke Woods today are a remnant of this great wood of two thousand and more years ago.
    The tradition of a siege by Vespasian has generally been discredited by modem historians, mainly on the ground that it appears in the writings of a chronicler (Geoffrey of Monmouth) who is known to be very inaccurate, if no worse.


    He tells us that Vespasian was sent down by the Emperor Claudius to subdue South-West Britain, and that he besieged Exeter for eight days without success.

    A British king then arrived from the east with an army and fought with Vespasian.
    Despite great losses on both sides neither got die victory. The next

    so evolution , aand brutality has moved now , hasn,t it